How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths

Khalid Elhassan - February 28, 2022

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
Agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, the DEA’s predecessor, shovel seized drugs into a furnace. Old Salt Books

9. The Mob Used to be America’s Biggest Drug Traffickers

Lucky Luciano became America’s biggest drugs trafficker and distributor. Contra the notion popularized by movies and works of fiction that the mob traditionally avoided narcotics, the drug trade was one of the Mafia’s biggest moneymakers since the earliest days of the mob. It is often asserted that the Mafia had a long-standing prohibition against dope – either because of morality or because of the public stigma attached to drugs. That is untrue. The notion that the mafia stayed away from drugs is just a myth, popularized by fiction and Hollywood hits such as The Godfather.

In reality, the mafia was heavily involved in the drug trade from the start. Long before the days of Pablo Escobar, Lucky Luciano was America’s – and one of the world’s – greatest narcotics kingpins. For decades, the mafia was the biggest importer of hard drugs into the US, particularly heroin. It was not until cocaine supplanted heroin as the hard drug of choice, and the rise of the Colombian cartels in the 1970s, that the mob lost its top spot as America’s biggest drug trafficker.

Read: How Mafia Boss Lucky Luciano Helped the US Invade Italy from a Prison Cell?

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
German armor plunges into the Soviet Union at the start of Operation Barbarossa. Encyclopedia Britannica

8. The Myth That Hitler’s Invasion of the Balkans in the Spring of 1941 Doomed the Invasion of the USSR Shortly Thereafter

Another WWII myth revolves around Operation Barbarossa, the surprise German invasion of the Soviet Union, which ground to a halt amidst the Russian winter a few miles short of Moscow. It holds that the invasion would have succeeded if it had only started a month or two earlier than its actual launch date of June 22nd, 1941. The reason it did not start earlier, goes this narrative, is because Hitler got entangled in the Balkans, and invaded Greece and Yugoslavia in April of 1941. As a result, the launch of Operation Barbarossa was delayed.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
German troops in the Soviet Union in the winter of 1941. Webkits

The first flaw with this account is that gives winter top billing for stopping the German advance. However, other factors such as fierce Soviet resistance, the overextension of German supply lines as the Wehrmacht plunged ever deeper into the USSR, and autumn rains, had already brought the German advance to a halt before the first snowstorms. The Germans had to regroup before they resumed their advance on Moscow, and that gave the Soviets a breather. To be fair, Hitler’s soldiers were unprepared for the terrible Russian winter when it arrived. However, that was only one factor, and not the main one, for the German advance’s halt.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
A German supply column in the Eastern Front during the rasputitsa. Quora

7. The German Invasion of the USSR Would Have Fared Worse if it Had Been Launched Earlier

The main flaw with the myth that Operation Barbarossa would have succeeded if it had been launched two months earlier – in April 1941, instead of June – is that an earlier invasion would have been even worse for the Germans. It would have been even less successful and ground to a halt earlier, after it had advanced a shorter distance than the actual June invasion. The Germans advanced as rapidly and plunged as deeply into the USSR in the summer of 1941 because of the weather. The months-long dry summer stretch perfectly suited their Blitzkrieg style of maneuver warfare. Breakthroughs were followed by aggressive exploitation via deep armored thrusts, supplies hurried forward to maintain the advance, and infantry rapidly followed to consolidate the gains.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
Road conditions during the rasputitsa in the Eastern Front. Wikimedia

If the Germans had invaded in April 1941, their advance would have churned to a standstill after only a few weeks. That is because of the Rasputitsa, the Eastern European mud season when unpaved roads – nearly all Soviet roads at the time – became useless. Caused by rain in the fall and snow melt in the spring, the Rasputitsa would have brought an early Barbarossa to a stop or crawl. The attackers and their supply chain would have struggled to move through a sea of mud, while the Luftwaffe was grounded by the transformation of its dirt airfields into fields of mire. That would have given the Soviets time to regroup while they waited for the roads to dry and the German offense to resume. The need to account for the Rasputitsa dictated the invasion’s start date, not Hitler’s Balkans entanglement.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
Contra the myth that ninjas and samurai were mortal enemies, many ninjas were samurai. Ancient Facts

6. The Myth of the Ninjas as Super Assassins

In pop culture, the word “ninja” conjures up images of masked warriors, all in black, who scaled walls and carried out assassinations all over feudal Japan. People often picture ninjas as covert killers who used exotic blades, throwing stars, and smoke bombs to kill their targets, all while locked in a feud with the more honorable samurai. That is plain myth. In reality, such super cool ninjas never existed. The ones who did exist did not fit modern popular perceptions of what ninjas are supposed to have acted and looked like.

Ninjas did not wear black outfits as part of a uniform getup. At least no more so than average Japanese people of the period wore black clothes. What we consider ninjas were simply scouts, spies, and mercenaries, hired by various armies in feudal Japan. To carry out their tasks, they blended into the local population. They did not use throwing stars, but did use thrown poisoned darts known as bo shurikens. They did not have a blood feud with samurai. Indeed, quite a few ninjas were actually samurai.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
West German journalist Gerd Heidemann, credited with tracing the so-called ‘Hitler Diaries” – holds one of his exhibits aloft at a news conference on April 25th, 1983 in Hamburg. Associated Press

5. The Myth of Hitler’s Diary

For years after WWII, a persistent myth circulated to the effect that Hitler had kept a diary and that it had survived his demise in 1945. Many quested for that diary like it was the Holy Grail. Then in April of 1983 Stern magazine, a popular German current affairs weekly, held a press conference to make an important announcement. Their star reporter Gerd Heidemann had managed to get his hands on the Fuhrer’s diaries. They had been recovered in 1945 from the wreckage of a plane crash, and languished in obscurity until Heidemann tracked them down. The documents abounded with juicy tidbits that ranged from Hitler’s sensitivity about his bad breath to his remarkable ignorance about what was done to the Jews.

Stern’s jubilant editors declared that their scoop, which shed light on the Nazi dictator’s innermost thoughts, would lead to a major rewrite of the war’s history. The magazine, which had paid $6 million for the documents, sent them to three handwriting experts, all of whom declared the diary authentic. Hugh-Trevor Roper, a prominent British historian reviewed the diary on behalf of the Sunday Times, Stern’s publication partner, and concurred. However, because Stern’s editors feared a leak, they refused to allow any German WWII experts to examine the diary. As seen below, that turned out to be a huge mistake.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
Conman Konrad Kujau, years later with a copy of the Stern magazine edition announcing the discovery of Hitler’s diaries. O Explorador

4. An Obvious Forgery That Fooled Many Experts

Once Hitler’s diaries were published and German WWII experts finally got the chance to take a look, it did not take them long to spot signs of obvious forgery. The paper used was modern, and so was the ink. Moreover, the diaries were riddled with major historical inaccuracies about events and dates that Hitler could not have possibly gotten wrong. There were even dated entries in which the Fuhrer described events before they had actually happened in real life – an impossibility unless Hitler had access to a time machine. An investigation revealed that the diary had been created by a notorious German forger named Konrad Kujau.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
Hitler’s diaries in Stern magazine. Museum of Hoaxes

A conman with a track record of petty crimes, Kujau had made money in the 1970s from the sale of Nazi memorabilia smuggled from East Germany. Then he realized that he could charge even more if he forged authentication details to link the items to important Nazi figures. He eventually teamed up with Stern’s reporter Gerd Heidemann to rip off the magazine. In the fallout, historian Hugh-Trevor Roper’s reputation was ruined, and editors at Stern, the Sunday Times, and Newsweek, were fired. As to Kujau and Heidemann, they were tried and convicted of forgery and embezzlement, and sentenced to 42 months in prison.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
An antique samurai katana. Wikiperiment

3. The World’s Most Recognizable Sword?

The Japanese katana, thanks to Hollywood and assorted works of history, fiction, and historic fiction, is probably the world’s most recognizable sword. It is also one surrounded by many a myth. The katana is a single-edged curved sword, with a long handle for two-handed use. It features a square or circular guard, and a slender blade of around two and a half feet in length. Katanas are among the finest cutting weapons in history, and were used by Japanese samurai since feudal times. Their earliest recorded mention in the historic record dates to the twelfth century.

Katanas are the product of natural evolution. They started off as hefty “great swords” that grew thinner, lighter, and more agile over time in order to meet the demands of emergent combat styles that relied upon speed. They became popular with samurai because the ease and swiftness with which they could be drawn was a decided asset for the newer and faster techniques. The new combat styles were collectively dubbed kenjutsu, the art of sword fighting. The issue was often settled within seconds, and reaction time spelled the difference between life and death.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
A WWII military issue katana. Pinterest

2. The Myth of the Samurai Super Sword

Katanas inspired many legends. They were reportedly forged by master sword smiths who hammered and folded the blade over a thousand times. They were also rumored to be so sharp that they cut through machine guns in WWII. Unfortunately, that is a pure myth. In real life, back in their heyday, katanas, coupled with a smaller sword, were thrust, sharp edge facing upwards, through the bearer’s obi – a sash wrapped tightly around the samurai’s waist. The configuration was known as daisho, and it identified the wearer as a samurai – the only people authorized to tote paired swords.

Katanas worn in the daisho style facilitated a speedy draw, ideally allowing samurai to draw and cut down opponents in a single fluid motion. An entire martial art, Iaido, was dedicated to the speedy retrieval of katanas from their scabbards. Katanas are made from tamahagane steel. It is produced by traditional Japanese smelting processes that result in layered steels with varied carbon concentrations that are welded, folded, and hammered out to reduce impurities. A katana needs a sharp and hard edge. However, steel that is hard enough for a sharp edge is brittle, while softer steel that is not brittle will not take and retain a sharp edge. That posed a problem for sword smiths.

How Lies Surrounding the Alamo took Root and Other Historic Myths
Forgin a katana blade. Matcha

1. The Folding of Katana Blades Thousands of Times is a Myth

Katana makers solved the dilemma of a sword that had to be both sharp and hard-edged via the use of four metal bars. A soft iron bar to guard against breakage, sandwiched by two hard iron bars to prevent bending, and rounded off with a steel bar to take the cutting edge. The result was a sword that had a hard enough blade, and a sharp cutting edge. However, contra many a WWII tall tale, no katana was ever hard enough, or sharp enough, to cut through machine gun barrels. The four metal bars of which katanas were made were heated at high temperatures, then hammered into a long bar that would become the blade.

Contrary to myth, katana blades were not folded thousands of times. So many folds would be counterproductive, and render the steel useless for a sword. Instead, katana blades were folded between eight to sixteen times. When the sword was sharpened, the steel took a razor-sharp edge, while the softer iron kept the blade from breaking. Well-crafted katanas became prized heirlooms, passed down generations of samurai families for centuries. Magnificent specimens of centuries-old katanas can be seen in the Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya, Japan.


Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Atkin, Ronald – Pillar of Fire: Dunkirk 1940 (2000)

Automatic Ballpoint – Operation Tannenbaum

Burrough, Bryan; Tomlinson, Chris; Stanford, Jason – Forget the Alamo: The Rise and Fall of an American Myth (2021)

Clark, Alan – Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-1945 (1985)

Encyclopedia Britannica – Donation of Constantine

Encyclopedia Britannica – Montezuma II

Fleming, Peter – Operation Sea Lion: The Projected Invasion of England in 1940, an Account of the German Preparation and the English Countermeasures (1957)

German Studies Review, 22.1, February, 1999 – German Plans and Policies Regarding Neutral Nations in World War II With Special Reference to Switzerland

GQ, June 20th, 2019 – A Dirty, Rotten, Double Crossing (True) Story of What Happened to the Italian American Mob

History Collection – Myths and Mysteries From J. Edgar Hoover’s Personal Files

Japan Talk – 8 Common Ninja Myths

Military History Now – Enter the Ninja: Facts and Myths About Japan’s Most Mysterious Warriors

Murphy, David E. – What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa (2005)

Natural History Museum – Piltdown Man

New German Critique, No. 90 (Autumn, 2003) – The Fascination of a Fake: The Hitler Diaries

New Yorker, The, April 25th, 2013 – Diary of the Hitler Diary Hoax

PBS, American Experience – Ford’s Anti-Semitism

Robinson, H. Russell – Japanese Arms and Armor (1969)

Swords of Northshire – 5 Myths About Japanese and Samurai Swords

Tanks Encyclopedia – Tiger I

Tanks Encyclopedia – Tiger II

Time Magazine, June 9th, 2021 – We’ve Been Telling the Alamo Story Wrong for Nearly 200 Years

United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary – Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Fabricated ‘Historic’ Document

Urner, Klaus – Let’s Swallow Switzerland: Hitler’s Plans Against the Swiss Confederation

Walsh, John E. – Unraveling Piltdown (1996)

Washington Post, May 5th, 2017 – Five Myths About the Mafia

Washington Post, June 10th, 2021 – The Myth of Alamo Gets History All Wrong: Instead of a Heroic Stance for Freedom, Texans Fought to be Able to Enslave People

Wikipedia – Rasputitsa

World History Encyclopedia – Donation of Constantine