4. You Probably Brought Diseases Home With You, If You Returned
Possibly the most dangerous element in Medieval warfare was the danger of disease. People were already aware of biological warfare and frequently employed it by doing things like using catapults and trebuchets to hoist dead animal carcasses inside a castle’s walls. They might even find a way to get a sick person behind enemy lines, to infect the entire opposing army. Also, then there was the reality of the injuries that a soldier could receive becoming a breeding ground for germs, and the person then transporting them back to his or her home.
Many Crusader soldiers who returned from the Holy Lands carried back with them diseases that they had picked up. Even if they did not suffer from the conditions, they could transport them as carriers and thereby infect communities all along the route heading back home. Couple these realities with the fact that Medieval hygiene was abysmal and sewage often ran through city streets, and you have the stage set for large-scale infections. The people probably had some level of immunity to the diseases that were common to their areas, but when soldiers returned from faraway lands and brought new illnesses, they were utterly helpless.
3. You Fought With Some Seriously Destructive Weaponry
Gunpowder already existed in China during the Middle Ages, but it had yet to make its way to Europe. In the meantime, Medieval soldiers had their own slew of weaponry that they could use in fighting against their enemies. In many ways, their weapons had the power and destructive abilities of later gunpowder-based weaponry but relied on manpower for energy. Crossbows instead of guns, trebuchets, and catapults instead of canons, but the Medieval versions could be far more accurate than their successors.
The morning star, sometimes referred to as the “holy water sprinkler,” was a clubbed ball attached to a wooden pole with a chain. It looked like something ninjas would use. Trebuchets were super-powered catapults that could launch loads over half a mile and decimate a castle’s defenses. People frequently loaded them with the carcasses of dead animals to spread disease inside the castle walls. It was a Medieval form of biological warfare. And don’t forget the crossbow, which could shoot its lethal ammunition a quarter of a mile with high accuracy. You didn’t stand a chance if you were hit with any of this stuff.
Medieval armies were more than just men wearing hundreds of pounds of armor riding in on horses. Sure there were cavalrymen, most of whom had to bring their armor and horses. There were also foot soldiers and a line of archers. The sequence of archers was what people had to watch out for because they could shoot deadly arrows long distances and begin to kill soldiers on the other side long before the foot soldiers and the cavalry had made their way down to the battlefield. Archers were also frequently positioned along the castle walls and could pick off invaders.
Short bows were probably the weakest of an archer’s weapons, and they could shoot with accuracy as far as 100 yards. They were frequently used in the earlier Medieval Ages, such as in defending against Viking raids up through the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Later on, longbows could shoot arrows over 300 yards. The crossbow, though, was the most dreaded of all: it could send an arrow a quarter of a mile with incredible accuracy. Arrows shot with a crossbow could easily pierce through metal armor, but the real danger was when the tips were on fire.
1. You Would Destroy Your Own Land to Discourage the Enemy
When an army was approaching, the leader would often send out an emissary to try to get the opposing force to surrender. Moreover, considering how large these armies were when they were traveling, usually on foot, through long stretches of countryside, there was no hiding when an enemy army was approaching. As such, opposing forces knew when they needed to prepare. They would often burn the surrounding countryside so that the approaching army would have no food. This was only the first step of many that they would take to prepare.
With a siege on the horizon, soldiers would stockpile food and supplies inside the castle so that they could hopefully outlast the surrounding army. They would also dig ditches that they could use to defend their territory, as well as set up pikes and fighting platforms. With the Vikings, however, the game changed. No one knew when a Viking raid was coming, as they came by water and were thereby able to launch surprise attacks. Standing defenses became a way of life to protect against Viking raids. And when they didn’t work, paying bribe money to make the Vikings go away was rarely considered to be beneath the defending army.
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