Galen was one of the most significant physicians of the ancient world. He did anatomical work on other primates. It led to him realizing that there are anatomical similarities in humans despite whatever maladies they may present with. He recognized that these similarities in human anatomy and biology meant that there were specific illnesses that people could be diagnosed with. These diseases were attributed to the body not functioning correctly. Galen was the medical authority throughout the Middle Ages. It means that his teachings influenced Western medicine for at least 1400 years.
During his time, Aristotle was known as “the man who knows everything.” Afterward, he became known simply as “the philosopher.” In fact, Aristotle was so well-known as the singularity of genius that a thousand years after his end, the Medieval writer Dante referred to him simply as “the master,” and his readers knew whom he was talking about. Aristotle pioneered scientific inquiry into every kind of knowledge. Furthermore, he made contributions in fields as disparate as biology, political science, agriculture, literature, metaphysics, medicine, botany, physics, mathematics, logic, ethics, and even theatre.
Gregor Mendel is known as the father of genetics because of how his research led to the discovery of the basic principles of heredity. As a monk, he spent a lot of time in the garden of the monastery doing experiments that involved cross-pollinating pea plants. He saw that the plants born from the seeds of the “parent” plants had specific, often predictable traits. The carriers of transmission that caused these traits to pass between generations of pea plants (and of every other life form) became known as genes. Today, Mendel’s name is inseparable from genetic theory. Keep reading for more beautiful people throughout the world who did amazing things.
Nelson Mandela was a social reformer who fought against the apartheid government that kept Blacks in South Africa under complete subjugation. As a young man, he took part in guerilla tactics and conflict, which could become violent. He spent decades in prison for his actions, and while there, he left his previous ideology and came to embrace nonviolence. After they released him from prison, the people elected Nelson Mandela president in the first free election that South Africa had a country. His election meant that South Africa was no longer an apartheid state. He worked to help the country heal from the wounds of racial injustice.
Desmond Tutu worked alongside Nelson Mandela for the liberation of Blacks who suffered under apartheid in South Africa. He was the leader of the South African Council of Churches, which advocated racial equality, and wrote numerous books about civil rights for all people. Desmond Tutu demanded that Blacks in South Africa stop being deported to homelands. Plus, he knew that all South Africans should receive the same education, regardless of skin tone. Tutu received a Nobel Peace Prize for his work for the reconciliation of South Africa. Following the election of Nelson Mandela, Tutu worked on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission that would help create racial justice.