Peter the Great
Peter Alekseyevich Romanov became tsar of the Russian empire at the age of 10 as co-ruler with his older half-brother Ivan. The two boys had found themselves at the center of a violent factional dispute, led by Peter’s mother, the former tsar Alexei’s second wife and Sophia, Alexis’s daughter from his first marriage. The co-rulership was a compromise between the two factions, with Sophia acting as regent. However, in the process, the young Peter had witnessed the violent deaths of many of his relatives.
Until he was 17, Peter took very little interest in ruling directly, preferring to spend his time drinking and on military matters. The, his mother, organized his marriage to a young noblewoman Eudoxia Lopukhina and Peter seemed to wake up. He finally removed his sister Sophia from power and had her committed to a convent, while continuing to rule, nominally at least, with Ivan.
In 1696, Peter decided to visit Western Europe, often travelling in disguise. He returned to Russia in 1698 to put down a revolt, replete with new ideas- and a desire to drag Russia out of the dark ages into the age of enlightenment. Courtiers were required to abandon traditional dress and instead adopt western, German fashions. Peter even instigated a beard tax to force nobles to shave their long beards. He established St. Petersburg as his capital, introduced western-style architecture and put his heir, Alexei in charge of a German tutor.
He divorced Eudoxia that same year, committing her to a convent because of her conspiracy against him. In 1712, Peter married again to Catherine, his Lithuanian mistress. So far, Peter had achieved much and disposed of many troublesome relatives- yet not ended the life of a single one of them. However, in 1718, Prince Alexei, who had wished to renounce the succession, was implicated in a plot to overthrow his father.
Peter ordered his son to be tried by a secular court. To extract a confession, the court officials ordered the Prince tortured until he confessed. Having done so, Alexi was convicted and sentenced to die. However, the order of execution could only be ratified by Peter’s signature. The Tsar had not hesitated to have his son tortured- but he delayed over ending his life. While peter deliberated, fate decided to take a hand, and Alexei died in prison from the effects of his torture.