4. One of the most popular and enduring characters from English folklore, Robin Hood was most likely a real individual – or at least a composite – dating from the 13th century
A heroic and legendary outlaw from English folklore, Robin Hood remains one of the most iconic individuals from popular mythology. Commonly accompanied by his band of Merry Men, as well as his lover Maid Marian, stories involving Robin typically following a linear pattern of rebelling against the corrupt Sheriff. Returning from the Crusades to discover his land has been stolen, Robin, a skilled archer, embarks on a campaign of unrest and armed dissent to resist the corrupt official and uphold the rule of the absent King Richard. Becoming a popular figure during the Late Middle Ages, entering the mainstream by the 15th century, the historicity of Robin Hood remains disputed.
A common name in Medieval England, spelled Robyn, and with “Hude” meaning an individual who wore a head-covering, the frequency with which a “Robin Hood” is named in legal proceedings is somewhat unhelpful in determining the truth behind the mythological narrative. Garnering at least eight references during the mid-to-late 13th century on the legal rolls of England, it is highly likely that an individual thwarting the law in a similar manner to the legend existed. In particular, Robin of York, dating from 1226, bears a striking resemblance, being stripped of his assets, declared an outlaw, and who subsequently became a bandit.
3. The legendary third King of Rome, the existence of Tullus Hostilius is supported by a moderate amount of historical evidence sustaining the core framework of his story
The grandson of Hostus Hostilius, who had fought and died alongside Romulus during the Sabine invasion of the newly-founded Rome, Tullus is believed to have succeeded Numa Pompilius in approximately 673 BCE. Although his legend bears similarities to that of Romulus himself, including being raised by shepherds, doubling the citizenry of Rome, and waging wars against Fidenae and Veii, historians, whilst disputing some components of his narrative, broadly support the historicity of the individual himself. Reigning until 643, two particular moments of his tenure stand out as historically accurate fact supporting his claim to existence.
First, the construction of the original Roman Senate House: the Curia Hostilia. Dating to the seventh century BCE and located on the northwestern edge of the Forum, the otherwise inexplicably named building manifestly borrows its nomenclature from the foremost ruler of the day. Secondly, and most famously, Tullus oversaw the destruction of the rival settlement of Alba Longa. Subjugated by the warlike Tullus, the contest was ultimately decided by a battle of three champions. Becoming a vassal state of Rome, its ruler, Mettius Fufetius, later betrayed Rome leading Tullus to order the raising of the town, evidence of which event has since been found by archaeologists.
2. One of only two commoners to be posthumously deified in Ancient Egypt, Imhotep was granted his divinity more than one thousand years after his actual death as the god of medicine
Remembered today chiefly as the titular character of The Mummy and its subsequent modern remakes, Imhotep was for thousands of years one of the most prominent gods of the Egyptian pantheon. Serving as the god of medicine, Imhotep, regarded as the brother of Amenhotep, enjoyed temples and offerings in his name throughout the Nile Delta. Despite this tremendous level of worship, Imhotep was actually once a mere mortal man. Born in approximately the 27th century BCE, although very little is known about the life and times of Imhotep, it is thought the future god served as chancellor to the Pharaoh Djoser.
Considered responsible for the Djoser pyramid, suggesting an architectural prowess, two ancient inscriptions can be found on a pedestal of a statue of Djoser attesting to the existence of Imhotep. Not mentioned again for almost twelve hundred years, Imhotep, who also served as the high priest of the sun god Ra, suddenly exploded into posthumous glory. Becoming only one of two commoners to be deified, Imhotep, for reasons unknown, developed a cult stemming from his alleged medical skills during life. Venerated throughout the New Kingdom and Late Period, his popularity only waned into obscurity during the rise of Greco-Roman medical influence in Egypt during the late-1st millennium BCE.
1. The leading figure of the Christian mythology, Jesus of Nazareth was undeniably a real individual who existed during the first millennium of the Common Era
Allegedly conceived by the Holy Spirit and born to the Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ forms the central character of the Christian religious mythology, as well as serving as a more minor figure in Islam. Baptized by John and forming his own ministry, according to the Bible Jesus gathered a following of believers and preached throughout the Roman province of Galilee until he fell afoul of the local authorities. Betrayed and turned over for punishment, Jesus was put to death by crucifixion, before rising again after death three days later. Despite the fantastical claims associated with the life of Jesus, including several miracles including raising the dead and curing leprosy, historians today are virtually united on the question of whether or not he was a real person.
Born in 4 BCE, Jesus of Nazareth’s existence is testified both in early Christian sources, notably the canonical gospels, but also third-party writings. Most prominently, the Roman historian Tacitus and the Jewish historian Josephus provide a detailed and independent account of his existence, with the former offering corroboration on Pilate’s crucifixion order and the latter of Jesus’ ministry and political activities. With only a fringe community of historians continuing to dispute the existence of an individual similar to that of Jesus, it should be noted nevertheless this provides no proof of his alleged miracles and religious significance.