16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life

Steve - June 29, 2019

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
Tapestry showing Arthur as one of the Nine Worthies, wearing a coat of arms often attributed to him (c. 1385). Wikimedia Commons.

6. Whilst not winning a sword from either stone or lake, nor accompanied by Merlin, Arthur was likely a Romano-British ruler from the Dark Ages who helped repel Anglo-Saxons from the British Isles

A central figure in the mythology of the British Isles, serving as a crucial character in the origin myth of the country itself, King Arthur is a legendary monarch from the Dark Ages who supposedly ruled over Britain. Accompanied frequently by his many knights, the Arthurian legend has since become embellished in the centuries after with the gradual inclusion of the Holy Grail, the magician Merlin, and the magical realm of Avalon. Becoming one of the most prominent romantic figures in Middle Age literature, although waning in popularity in recent years, Arthur remains one of the most identifiable figures of ancient mythology.

Long debated by scholars, the historical basis of King Arthur remains uncertain. Although some historians contend Arthur never existed at all, the prevailing opinion has coalesced around the opinion that he likely did but we nevertheless know little about his life. Both the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae reference Arthur as a genuine historical figure, leading the Romano-British against the invading Anglo-Saxons during the late-5th and early-6th centuries. His involvement at the Battle of Badon, in particular, is supportable but also exemplifies the problematic nature of the historical narrative, recording he personally slew an unreasonably large 960 men.

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
The Shepherd finds the Babe Semiramis, by Ernest Wallcousins (c. 1915). Wikimedia Commons.

5. Whilst only ruling for a few years instead of for forty, Semiramis was a real monarch of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who ascended following the death of her husband

The wife of Onnes and Ninus, Semiramis was a legendary Lydian-Babylonian who later ascended to the throne of Assyria following the death of her second husband. Born to noble parents, according to the legendary narrative Semiramis was abandoned at birth and discovered by the royal shepherd. Leading soldiers during the Siege of Bactra, King Ninus fell in love with Semiramis and asked for her hand. Reigning supposedly for more than four decades, conquering much of Asia during this time, Semiramis is held responsible for the restoration of Babylon and construction of many great works of the ancient world.

Although many of the accomplishments of Semiramis stand clearly in the domain of mythology, there is no denying the historical foundations of the ruler. Named Shammuramat, the wife of Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria, Shammuramat served as regent of the enormous Neo-Assyrian Empire from 811-806 BCE until her son came of age. Ruling during a time of political uncertainty, her stabilization of the turbulent empire earned Shammuramat particular reverence leading to her veneration as a mythical figure.

Launching successful military campaigns against the Greeks and Persians, Shammuramat cemented her legacy within ancient mythology, albeit under a different name, as one of the earliest and most accomplished female rulers from antiquity.

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
Woodcut of Robin Hood and Maid Marion (c. 17th century). Wikimedia Commons.

4. One of the most popular and enduring characters from English folklore, Robin Hood was most likely a real individual – or at least a composite – dating from the 13th century

A heroic and legendary outlaw from English folklore, Robin Hood remains one of the most iconic individuals from popular mythology. Commonly accompanied by his band of Merry Men, as well as his lover Maid Marian, stories involving Robin typically following a linear pattern of rebelling against the corrupt Sheriff. Returning from the Crusades to discover his land has been stolen, Robin, a skilled archer, embarks on a campaign of unrest and armed dissent to resist the corrupt official and uphold the rule of the absent King Richard. Becoming a popular figure during the Late Middle Ages, entering the mainstream by the 15th century, the historicity of Robin Hood remains disputed.

A common name in Medieval England, spelled Robyn, and with “Hude” meaning an individual who wore a head-covering, the frequency with which a “Robin Hood” is named in legal proceedings is somewhat unhelpful in determining the truth behind the mythological narrative. Garnering at least eight references during the mid-to-late 13th century on the legal rolls of England, it is highly likely that an individual thwarting the law in a similar manner to the legend existed. In particular, Robin of York, dating from 1226, bears a striking resemblance, being stripped of his assets, declared an outlaw, and who subsequently became a bandit.

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
Tullus Hostilius defeating the army of Veii and Fidenae, as depicted in a seventeenth-century fresco (c. 1601). Wikimedia Commons.

3. The legendary third King of Rome, the existence of Tullus Hostilius is supported by a moderate amount of historical evidence sustaining the core framework of his story

The grandson of Hostus Hostilius, who had fought and died alongside Romulus during the Sabine invasion of the newly-founded Rome, Tullus is believed to have succeeded Numa Pompilius in approximately 673 BCE. Although his legend bears similarities to that of Romulus himself, including being raised by shepherds, doubling the citizenry of Rome, and waging wars against Fidenae and Veii, historians, whilst disputing some components of his narrative, broadly support the historicity of the individual himself. Reigning until 643, two particular moments of his tenure stand out as historically accurate fact supporting his claim to existence.

First, the construction of the original Roman Senate House: the Curia Hostilia. Dating to the seventh century BCE and located on the northwestern edge of the Forum, the otherwise inexplicably named building manifestly borrows its nomenclature from the foremost ruler of the day. Secondly, and most famously, Tullus oversaw the destruction of the rival settlement of Alba Longa. Subjugated by the warlike Tullus, the contest was ultimately decided by a battle of three champions. Becoming a vassal state of Rome, its ruler, Mettius Fufetius, later betrayed Rome leading Tullus to order the raising of the town, evidence of which event has since been found by archaeologists.

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre, Paris (c. 332-30 BCE). Wikimedia Commons.

2. One of only two commoners to be posthumously deified in Ancient Egypt, Imhotep was granted his divinity more than one thousand years after his actual death as the god of medicine

Remembered today chiefly as the titular character of The Mummy and its subsequent modern remakes, Imhotep was for thousands of years one of the most prominent gods of the Egyptian pantheon. Serving as the god of medicine, Imhotep, regarded as the brother of Amenhotep, enjoyed temples and offerings in his name throughout the Nile Delta. Despite this tremendous level of worship, Imhotep was actually once a mere mortal man. Born in approximately the 27th century BCE, although very little is known about the life and times of Imhotep, it is thought the future god served as chancellor to the Pharaoh Djoser.

Considered responsible for the Djoser pyramid, suggesting an architectural prowess, two ancient inscriptions can be found on a pedestal of a statue of Djoser attesting to the existence of Imhotep. Not mentioned again for almost twelve hundred years, Imhotep, who also served as the high priest of the sun god Ra, suddenly exploded into posthumous glory. Becoming only one of two commoners to be deified, Imhotep, for reasons unknown, developed a cult stemming from his alleged medical skills during life. Venerated throughout the New Kingdom and Late Period, his popularity only waned into obscurity during the rise of Greco-Roman medical influence in Egypt during the late-1st millennium BCE.

16 Historical Characters From Ancient Mythology Who Actually Existed In Real Life
The Baptism of Christ, by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior (c. 1895). Wikimedia Commons.

1. The leading figure of the Christian mythology, Jesus of Nazareth was undeniably a real individual who existed during the first millennium of the Common Era

Allegedly conceived by the Holy Spirit and born to the Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ forms the central character of the Christian religious mythology, as well as serving as a more minor figure in Islam. Baptized by John and forming his own ministry, according to the Bible Jesus gathered a following of believers and preached throughout the Roman province of Galilee until he fell afoul of the local authorities. Betrayed and turned over for punishment, Jesus was put to death by crucifixion, before rising again after death three days later. Despite the fantastical claims associated with the life of Jesus, including several miracles including raising the dead and curing leprosy, historians today are virtually united on the question of whether or not he was a real person.

Born in 4 BCE, Jesus of Nazareth’s existence is testified both in early Christian sources, notably the canonical gospels, but also third-party writings. Most prominently, the Roman historian Tacitus and the Jewish historian Josephus provide a detailed and independent account of his existence, with the former offering corroboration on Pilate’s crucifixion order and the latter of Jesus’ ministry and political activities. With only a fringe community of historians continuing to dispute the existence of an individual similar to that of Jesus, it should be noted nevertheless this provides no proof of his alleged miracles and religious significance.

Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“Who Was Semiramis of Assyria? Founder, Seductress, Warrior Queen”, Christian Djurslev, History Hit, 12 Mar 2019

“The Amazon Women: Is There Any Truth Behind the Myth?”, Amanda Foreman, Smithsonian Magazine, April 2014

“Who Was The Real Robin Hood?”, J. Rubén Valdés Miyares, National Geographic Channel, Published February 6, 2019

“Biography of Imhotep, Ancient Egyptian Architect, Philosopher, God”, K. Kris Hirst, ThoughtCo, October 29, 2019

“Hyperboreans: Myth and History in Celtic-Hellenic Contacts”, Timothy M. Bridgman, Studies in Classics (2005)

“Adventures in Unhistory: Conjectures on the Factual Foundations of Several Ancient Legends”, Avram Davidson, Tor Books (2006)

“The Quest for Merlin”, Nikolai Tolstoy, Hamish Hamilton Publishing (1985)

“Merlin: A Casebook”, Peter H. Goodrich, Routledge Publishing (2004)

“The Penguin Book of Classical Myths”, Jenny March, Penguin Books (2008)

“The Histories”, Herodotus, Penguin Books

“A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War”, Gary Forsythe, University of California Press (2006)

“Myths and Legends”, Neil Phillip, Dorling Kindersley Publishing (1999)

“The Iliad”, Homer translated by A.T. Murray, Harvard University Press (1924)

“The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World”, Adrienne Mayor, Princeton University Press (2014)

“The Real Amazons”, Joshua Rothman, The New Yorker (October 17, 2014)

“The Greek Myths: The Complete and Definitive Edition”, Robert Graves, Penguin Publishing (2011)

“Greek Pottery and Gordion Chronology”, Keith DeVries, in “The Archaeology of Midas and the Phrygians: Recent Work at Gordion”, Lisa Kealhofer, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (2005)

“The Vikings”, Robert Wernick, Time-Life Books (1979)

“A History of Greece”, J.B. Bury and Russell Meiggs, MacMillan Press (1975)

“The Republic”, Plato translated by Desmond Lee, Penguin Books (1955)

“Worlds of Arthur: Facts and Fictions of the Dark Ages”, Guy Halsall, Oxford University Press (2013)

“King Arthur: The Making of the Legend”, Nicholas J. Higham, Yale University Press (2018)

“Sammu-Ramat and Semiramis: The Inspiration and the Myth”, Jan van der Crabben, Ancient History Encyclopaedia (2009)

“Robin Hood: The English Outlaw Unmasked”, David Baldwin, Amberley Publishing (2010)

“Robin Hood: Outlaw and Greenwood Myth”, Fran Doel and Geoff Doel, Tempus Publishing (2000)

“The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome From the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars”, T.J. Cornell, Routledge (1995)

“The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten”, Molefi Kete Asante, African American Images (2000)

“The Jesus Puzzle: Did Christianity Begin with a Mythical Christ – Challenging the Existence of a Historical Jesus”, Earl Doherty, Age of Reason Publications (2005)

“The Christ Myth”, Arthur Drews and Deslisle C. Burns, Prometheus (1998)

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