The Controversial Military Career of Douglas MacArthur
The Controversial Military Career of Douglas MacArthur

The Controversial Military Career of Douglas MacArthur

Larry Holzwarth - February 12, 2020

The Controversial Military Career of Douglas MacArthur
Truman flew to Wake Island to meet with MacArthur, and was not impressed. National Archives

23. Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination during his command in Korea

MacArthur openly discussed the desirability of expanding the war in Korea to China, both in private meetings and in correspondence. He was also openly critical of Truman’s handling of the war. MacArthur wrote to allies to undermine Truman politically while his public relations staff worked overtime to enhance his own popularity with the American people. The Joint Chiefs of Staff, including Chairman Omar Bradley, as well as the Secretaries of Defense and State, agreed that Truman had no choice but to relieve MacArthur of his command. Truman ordered General Bradley to relieve MacArthur – who had remained in Tokyo other than when making brief visits to the front – and replaced him with Matthew Ridgway.

MacArthur’s firing was controversial in the United States, but widely hailed in Korea, where morale had fallen and the troops were in many cases poorly supplied and equipped. Ridgway’s actions restored their spirits, and the front stabilized. MacArthur returned to the United States for the first time since he had assumed command of the Army of the Philippines before World War II. He made a speech before a joint session of Congress, where he famously intoned that old soldiers never die, and enjoyed a spurt of popularity nationally. Truman’s popularity plummeted as he was pilloried in the press. MacArthur embarked on a speaking tour intended to position himself to run for President in 1952.

The Controversial Military Career of Douglas MacArthur
MacArthur often appeared in uniform for his speeches, as here at Chicago’s Soldier Field in April, 1951. Wikimedia

24. MacArthur’s speaking appearances undermined his Presidential ambitions

MacArthur toured the country making speeches and giving interviews. As 1951 eased into 1952 the crowds he attracted diminished in size. He was noted for attacking the President personally, and for embellishing his own record. More and more veterans of World War II and Korea questioned his penchant for self-praise at their expense. His appeal to the public followed his own prediction – it faded away. At the 1952 Republican Convention he was a non-factor. The nomination went to Eisenhower, who had no role for MacArthur in his administration after winning the election by a landslide. Nonetheless Ike consulted MacArthur while President, as did Kennedy and Johnson.

MacArthur died on April 5, 1964, and was buried at Norfolk, Virginia, after lying in state in the US Capitol Rotunda. Since his death his military reputation has risen and fallen with succeeding generations. He was considered vain, pompous, and overbearing by some, brilliant and innovative by others. He was best summed up by Australian Field Marshal Sir Thomas Blamey, who worked closely with him in the Pacific during World War II. When asked about MacArthur by a writer, Blamey said, “The best and the worst things you hear about him are both true”.

 

Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“West Point Orders About-face on 108-Year Old Tradition of Hazing Cadets”. Michael Hill, Associated Press. November 18, 1990

“Reminiscences of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur”. Douglas MacArthur. 2010

“The Making of a Hero: Douglas MacArthur’s Daring Mexican Heroics”. David Sears, American History Magazine. February, 2017

“MacArthur and Patton: The St. Mihiel Offensive”. Article, National Museum of the United States Army. Online

“A Brief History of West Point”. Article, United States Military Academy West Point. Online

“Meet Douglas MacArthur: America’s Olympic General”. Craig Bohnert, Team USA Online. July 4, 2016

“Chief of Staff”. A. J. Liebling, The New Yorker. October 19, 1940

“Into the Woods: The First Year of the Civilian Conservation Corps”. Joseph M. Speakman, Prologue Magazine. Fall, 2006. Online

“Eisenhower and MacArthur: Toil, Trouble and Turbulence in the Philippines”. Cole C. Kingseed, Association of the United States Army. January 13, 2015. Online

“Caught on the Ground”. John T. Correll, Air Force Magazine. December, 2007

“MacArthur and Defeat in the Philippines”. Richard Connaughton. 2001

“Marshall and MacArthur: The Tortoise and the Hare”. Stanley Weintraub, Quarterly Journal of Military History. Winter, 2000

“MacArthur – A Flawed General Takes Command of Australia’s Defence”. Article, Battle for Australia. Online

“General MacArthur and the Presidential Election of 1944”. Philip J. Briggs, Presidential Studies Quarterly. Winter 1992

“Leyte: The Return to the Philippines”. M. Hanlin Cannon. 1996

“Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, 1945-52”. Article, Office of the Historian, United States Department of State. Online

“Truman”. David McCullough. 1992

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