14. The FBI’s known files contain enough information to last scandalmongers for decades
The list of people on whom the FBI, under J. Edgar Hoover, maintained surveillance and kept extensive files of the information obtained is staggering. Its existence first became known to the public at roughly the same time as the Watergate scandal, and its associated scandals rattled Washington DC in the 1970s. As the names were revealed, public reaction over the surveillance was favorable or outraged, or in some cases indifferent, depending on the political leanings of the individual. Conservatives and pro-American involvement in Vietnam Americans applauded the FBI surveillance of Jane Fonda, John Lennon, Martin Luther King, and scores of others, willing to look away from the violation of civil rights since they were targeted at perceived enemies of America. Others were outraged at the idea of the private telephone communications of American citizens being intercepted and recorded by the FBI without the knowledge of a court, and without a warrant.
In the mind of J. Edgar Hoover, homosexuality was a precursor to communism, and in the lists of individuals his bureau kept on the former were suspected supporters of communist infiltration of the United States government, and the end of the American way of life. Eleanor Roosevelt was among the most famous suspected by Hoover of being pro-communist due to her sexual orientation. Hoover kept in his files the names of Congressmen and their aides, Senators, judges and lawyers, career civil servants, military careerists, members of the diplomatic corps, members of the press. FBI files were filled with the names of artists, film stars, filmmakers, college professors, and members of the clergy, as well as many others; extensive files called for, in Hoover’s mind, because anyone exploring same-sex activity was likely to explore communist beliefs and values, and was, therefore, a threat to the security of the United States.
15. Some of Hoover’s files spanned decades, and covered personal and political activities
The FBI file on Charles Chaplin, a beloved American film producer and actor from the silent era until the 1950s, included investigations under the White Slave Traffic Act. The FBI, under Hoover’s direction, sought to have Chaplin charged with transporting underage women across state lines for sexual purposes. Chaplin escaped prosecution under the Slave Trade Act, but found himself under investigation for several decades due to his belonging to what Hoover believed to be communist-leaning organizations, some little more than fronts for the support of Josef Stalin to Hoover’s way of thinking. Chaplin’s files remained active from 1922 to 1978, years after Hoover died.
Errol Flynn was likewise investigated under the White Slave Trade Act, with a file on the actor opened in the 1940s, and expanded when Flynn was the victim of an extortion attempt. Former radio broadcaster Paul Harvey, who always shared with his listeners “the rest of the story”, once inadvertently entered a secure area in 1951, leading to an investigation (and file) that chronicled his personal life. American actor and 1950s icon Rock Hudson was the subject of intensive investigations, likely due to his hidden sexual orientation. Actor/dancer Gene Kelly was the subject of extensive investigations by the FBI as well, including his sex life, due to the belief that he was an associate of left-wing groups with ties to the Soviets. All of the above individuals and hundreds more had their civil rights as Americans violated by Hoover’s zealous determination to ensure moral rectitude in American society.
16. Hoover’s FBI attempted to decipher the lyrics to the song “Louie, Louie”
The song Louie, Louie, first recorded in 1955 and released to become a hit by The Kingsmen in 1963, has long been the subject of discussion regarding its lyrics, incomprehensible in the 1963 version for the most part. Still, it is just a song, seemingly a harmless one, and it has been interpreted by countless thousands of garage and basement bands since. In 1964, reasoning that lyrics which cannot be clearly understood must be obscured for a reason, and that reason must be because they are obscene, the FBI opened an investigation into the song. From February to May of 1964 the full might of the Federal Bureau of Investigation analyzed the song and questioned the writers and musicians associated with its release, diligently protecting the American people from immorality, as its long-standing director had ensured the taxpayers it would.
The FBI file, heavily redacted of course, presumably for reasons of national security, can be read online. Its cover page acknowledges that the words as recorded are largely indecipherable, but when listened to with a copy of the obscene lyrics kept handy for reference, it “sounds like the lyrics are identical with the enclosed obscene lyrics”. Louie, Louie became one of the earliest records said to contain hidden messages when played at altered speeds – in its case obscene lyrics – but after a diligent and thorough investigation Hoover’s FBI ensured the American people, “they were unable to determine what the lyrics of the song were, even after listening to the records at speeds ranging from 16 to 78 rpm”. The investigation had been triggered by a letter to the Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy, in which the letter writer pointed out, “This land of ours is headed for an extreme state of moral degradation”, to which the record of Louie, Louie clearly contributed, and was thus a matter for the FBI.
17. Despite numerous rumors, nobody ever accused Hoover of using the secret files for blackmail
One of the legends surrounding J. Edgar Hoover’s secret personal files was that they were used, or were to be used, to blackmail members of the Washington community to do his bidding as necessary. It is widely assumed by those who assign to Hoover an evil hold on the reins of government throughout his reign as Director of the FBI that he used his ill-gotten information as the source of his almost unlimited power, controlling the government through fear, and when necessary, through the time-honored criminal art of blackmail. Hoover did not use blackmail overtly, he did not demand tit for tat in his dealings with either members of congress or the occupants of the Oval Office. He was far more subtle in his use of the information which the FBI held in its files, including implying that he (Hoover) was not the only FBI official privy to the information.
In March, 1962, Hoover met with John Kennedy in the Oval Office, according to his own notes. The meeting was ostensibly a working lunch during which, according to author Ronald Kessler, Hoover informed the President that the FBI had information regarding Kennedy having an affair with Judith Campbell, a 25-year-old divorcee who also was having a concurrent affair with Chicago Mob boss Sam Giancana. According to Kessler, Hoover simply let JFK know that the FBI had the information, allowing the President to stew over it on his own. According to Kessler, JFK responded by ending the affair. Numerous and conflicting accounts of the affair and Kennedy’s relationship with Campbell (later known as Judith Exner) have been “revealed” ever since, though nothing which could be confirmed as unimpeachable evidence of the affair, or the luncheon in which Hoover revealed his knowledge of it to the President has ever surfaced.
18. J. Edgar Hoover wanted Richard Nixon as President and worked to elect him to the office
When Richard Nixon, then Vice President of the United States, ran for the Presidency in 1960 his boss, incumbent President Dwight David Eisenhower, was tepid in his endorsement. J. Edgar Hoover wanted Nixon to be elected, and after the disappointment in 1960 he worked to ensure Nixon prevailed when he ran again in 1968, and for re-election in 1972. In 1971 the former Attorney General for the United States and erstwhile Nixon law partner John M. Mitchell served as the head of Nixon’s Committee to Re-elect the President (with the acronym CREEP, surely the most apropos such designation in the history of American politics). Hoover used FBI sources to funnel politically volatile information to Mitchell for use by the Nixon campaign. It was information provided by Hoover which led the Nixon White House to create the White House Investigations Unit, the official name for what became famous as the White House Plumbers.
According to a Hoover memo which eventually found residence in his Confidential files, and which was shared with John Mitchell, information critical of the FBI was being fed to the McGovern campaign by disenchanted agents. McGovern used the information, which included revelations of illegal surveillance on American citizens, to attack Hoover and by extension the Nixon Administration. The names of individuals to which information was linked included journalists and columnists, and Hoover provided their names, as well as the names of their sources. They became the basis of what later was known as the White House Enemies List. Thus Hoover and Nixon, with Mitchell as an intermediary, using illegally obtained information to discredit the Democratic candidate for President, while Nixon ran on a platform which described him as the Law and Order candidate, enjoying a ringing endorsement from the long-term director of the FBI, America’s greatest lawman, J. Edgar Hoover.
19. The FBI files on Ernest Hemingway contributed to the writer’s suicide, according to close friends
Ernest Hemingway was a living legend as a writer, and as what was in his day considered to be a man’s man. Besides his career as a writer of fiction, he was over the course of his life a war correspondent, big game hunter and fisherman, a noted outdoorsman and adventurer. He was at home with bullfighters and prizefighters as he was with literary critics and agents. By 1959 Hemingway was convinced that he was a constant target of FBI surveillance, and later examination of FBI files indicated that he had been correct. Hemingway, while living in Cuba in 1959, told friends that, “They’ve bugged everything…Can’t use the phone. Mail’s intercepted”. Hemingway insisted on using a friend’s car rather than his own during a pheasant hunting trip, certain that his own vehicle was bugged by the FBI. He often left dinners at public restaurants due to his belief that nearby “diners” were in fact FBI agents.
It was Hoover who directed the surveillance of Hemingway, suspicious that the writer held pro-Castro and communism beliefs. As with other of his surveillance targets, Hoover directed his agents to obtain potentially damaging information on the writer’s friends and sexual liaisons, rather than direct evidence of pro-communist leanings. Hemingway’s friends and family, convinced that the writer’s complaints (coupled with other actions on his part) were part of his increasingly evident mental illness had Hemingway subjected to electro-shock therapy in Minnesota. Just less than two years later he committed suicide with a shotgun. Just over a decade following his death, the revelation of the FBI’s files included a 124-page file on Ernest Hemingway. According to the evidence contained in the file, there was a strong indication that his medical records during his shock treatments – at St. Mary’s in Rochester, Minnesota – were monitored and the writer’s statements recorded by the FBI.