8. George Washington’s dentures were not made from wood, as often taught in American schools, but rather from the teeth of enslaved Africans.
As every child in America should be able to tell you, George Washington, as was common in colonial times, had false teeth. However, in contrast to the perpetuated belief that these teeth were made of wood, a falsehood for any person of Washington’s social stature, strong evidence suggests his dentures were actually crafted, in addition to other valuable articles including gold and ivory, from teeth acquired from African slaves. The Mount Vernon Ledgers provide the foundational evidence for this contention, with “Ledger Book B” recording a brief notation dated May 1784 intimating such an action.
Dr. Jean Le Mayuer, George Washington’s dentist, was known to place newspaper advertisements for “persons who are willing to dispose of their Front Teeth”. The standard rate was two guineas for each good tooth, but Washington’s records denote the price paid as being less than seven guineas for nine. In fact, the ledger specifically states “Cash pd Negroes for 9 Teeth”. Combining this historical documentation with a surviving pair of Washington’s dentures, which do indeed include human teeth, the evidence strongly appears to suggest that Washington acquired his famously false teeth from enslaved Africans who were paid significantly below market rate and possibly had little choice.
7. Dr. Benjamin Rush, a Philadelphian physician and signatory to the Declaration of Independence, believed that being black was a disease and that bloodletting could cure yellow fever.
A leading figure of the American Enlightenment, Dr. Benjamin Rush enthusiastically supported the revolutionary cause and served as Surgeon General of the Continental Army. Despite many laudatory contributions to his discipline, Rush was a notorious proponent of “heroic medicine”: the belief in bloodletting and other bodily purges to cure illness. Of particular note, during the Philadelphia Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793, Rush, as one of the leading physicians of the city, treated as many as one hundred patients per day. However, due to his archaic and unscientific methods, few of these unfortunates survived his methods and instead died.
Although successful in defending his reputation in a libel action against William Cobbett, who had accused him of killing more patients than he had saved, Rush’s methods were ultimately blamed for the deaths of both Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. Furthermore, Rush believed that Africans could not contract yellow fever, without evidence supporting this claim, and as such merely intensified the epidemic by declining to treat certain population centers. This apathy might also have stemmed from racialist views of medicine, including that “blackness” was a medical disorder that could, like any “disease”, be cured.
6. Benjamin Franklin’s London home hid the skeletal remains of at least 10 individuals buried there during his residence at the property.
Benjamin Franklin, affectionately referred to as “The First American” for his lifelong efforts to unite the colonies, was responsible, among countless accomplishments, for the vital alliance with France during the Revolutionary War. Only one residence inhabited by Franklin prior to his death in 1790 has survived to the modern day, that being 36 Craven Street in London. During restoration work in 1998, workmen uncovered more than 1,200 pieces of human bones buried beneath the property. As The Times reported, “initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were buried at the time Franklin was living in the house”.
Some of the bones, belonging to an estimated six children and four adults, displayed clear signs of having undergone dissection, with cuts, saw marks, and drill holes in the skulls. Whilst the lack of evidence compelled the Westminster Coroner to announce “I cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime”, it is not widely suggested Franklin was personally responsible for the bodies. Instead, Franklin’s housemate for two years, William Hewson, a surgeon and anatomist, most likely procured the bodies for scientific study. Strict laws governed the use of bodies for medical research, demanding secrecy, with Franklin most likely merely offering sanctuary for a fellow scientist.
5. Contrary to popular imagination and representation, George Washington was actually a prolific liar.
Another frequent inclusion in American schools is the story of a young George Washington confessing his guilt regarding a damaged cherry tree, claiming that “I cannot tell a lie”. Not only an untrue myth, the apocryphal quote contrasts comically with Washington’s habitual deceits for personal profit. Starting with his signing of the surrender at Fort Necessity in 1754, the only formal surrender of Washington’s military career, he later blamed his translator for his confession of war crimes and feigned ignorance. Washington’s admission that he had murdered Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, despite his subsequent denials, served as the motivation behind the French-Indian War.
Similarly, with the onset of war in the Americas between Britain and France, the Governor of Virginia offered common soldiers a bounty of land in exchange for enlistment. Officers were explicitly excluded, with their service expected as part of their civic duty as gentlemen. With the end of the war and the installation of a new governor, Washington led a consortium of officers into deceiving the naive politician that it was, in fact, the officers who were due the land. Consequently, Washington appropriated more than 20,000 acres of land that had been originally set aside for the common soldiers who had fought under his command.
4. Thomas Jefferson compelled, under false promises, a teenage female slave to serve as his concubine after the death of his wife.
Thomas Jefferson was perhaps the most influential of the Founding Fathers, acting as the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, the inaugural Secretary of State, Third President of the United States, and responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. Less respectably, after the death of his wife, Martha, in 1782, Jefferson initiated a sexual relationship with teenage African slave Sally Hemings. Summoning his slave to France in 1787, Hemings, aged approximately 16, was impregnated during her 26-month residence in Paris. Offered the choice to petition for her freedom under French law, Jefferson manipulated Hemings with the promise of freedom for her children should she return to Virginia and slavery.
Although the child produced in Paris did not long survive, Jefferson is believed to have produced at least six further children by Hemings over a period of more than a decade. Whilst historically their relationship has been portrayed in a romantic light, recent examinations have shed a darker picture on Jefferson’s actions. Hemings, a teenager, could not possibly have refused the advances of her 40-year-old master and categorically was unable to refuse consent. Coerced through unfulfilled promises for her children, Hemings was repeatedly raped by the American legend, even if social norms at the time did not perceive it as such.
3. John Adams, the second American president, was denied a second term of office due to his terrifyingly authoritarian and monarchical political leanings.
Throughout his life, John Adams never shied away from courting controversy. From defending the accused British soldiers after the Boston Massacre to his opposition to racial slavery, the Second President of the United States arguably absorbed the most flak for his surprisingly authoritarian and monarchical tendencies. Suggesting that “hereditary monarchy or aristocracy” were the “only institutions that can possibly preserve the laws and liberties of the people”, Adams sought instead to induce “ordered liberty” under a conservative social hierarchy. During his two-term tenure as Vice-President to George Washington, Adams garnered negative attention for proposing the president be referred to as “His Highness”.
Elected in his own right to succeed Washington in 1796, Adams’ actions in the capacity as the nation’s chief executive failed to abate concerns regarding his political ambitions or designs. Of particular note, the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) – granting, among other powers, the president the right to imprison or deport non-citizens at will in addition to criminalizing criticism of the federal government – was seen as an ominous confirmation of authoritarian objectives. These acts underpinned the Anti-Federalist victory in the election of 1800, which saw Jefferson become President, and condemned Adams to be just one of just 7 commanders-in-chief to fail to acquire a second term of office after prior election.
2. Richard Stockton, a humble lawyer, endured torturous conditions in British captivity for refusing to accept a conditional pardon demanding his acquiescence during the Revolutionary War.
Richard Stockton was an American lawyer elected to the Second Continental Congress, whereupon, in this capacity, he acted as the first signatory to the Declaration of Independence from the New Jersey delegation. During efforts to evacuate the family of John Covenhoven, on November 30, 1776, Stockton was captured along with his friend. Dragged from his bed in the middle of the night and transported to Perth Amboy by Loyalist bounty hunters, Stockton refused to accept the conditional pardon offered by General Howe and was instead imprisoned. Incarcerated at Provost Prison in New York, Stockton was subjected to brutal and intolerable conditions causing lasting health problems.
Suffering from starvation and exposure, Stockton endured the additional indignity of having much of his property, including furniture and livestock, seized or destroyed. His library, among the most extensive in the Americas, was burned by the British in an act of deliberate malice. In total, 4,435 soldiers died in battle in New York during the Revolutionary War, in contrast to more than 12,000 in prisons. After weeks in captivity, Washington himself petitioned Howe for the release of political prisoners including Stockton. Offered freedom on condition he would abstain from further involvement in the rebellion, Stockton, in immeasurably poor health, was eventually freed to return to what remained of his estate.
1. George Washington deliberately exploited a legal loophole in Pennsylvania law to avoid being forced to emancipate his slaves whilst serving as President of the United States.
After the ratification of the United States Constitution, whilst a new city was built to serve as the capital of the fledgling nation – Washington, D.C. – the city of Philadelphia was selected to serve as the temporary capital. Remaining the seat of government for the duration of Washington’s two terms as president, the commander-in-chief was forced to relocate to Philadelphia, bringing with him a number of enslaved persons to serve in his household. In 1780, Pennsylvania had passed the Gradual Abolition Act, stipulating that slaves were freed after they reached the age of 28 along with those who had lived in the state for more than six months.
In order to avoid surrendering his property, Washington would transport his slaves back to Mount Vernon, or on some occasions literally to the state lines, every six months. Through this method, kept deliberately secret to avoid scandal, Washington was able to perpetually reset the clock on his slave’s freedom and circumvent the clear intended purpose of the 1780 emancipation legislation. Reflecting his sustained desire to retain his Negro possessions, Washington also signed into law the Fugitive Slave Act in 1793 in addition to launching a three-year search for an escaped female slave who fled to New Hampshire after learning she was to be given as a wedding present.
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