18 Details About Life in Italy Under Benito Mussolini
18 Details About Life in Italy Under Benito Mussolini

18 Details About Life in Italy Under Benito Mussolini

Larry Holzwarth - November 19, 2018

18. The end of Fascism in Italy

By the summer of 1943, the Italian military was soundly beaten by the British and Americans, and the Italian people had had quite enough of Il Duce (the duke, understood by Italians to mean the leader) and were ready to depose him. King Victor Emmanuel III, in an attempt to save his crown, removed Mussolini as prime minister after obtaining a vote of no confidence from the Grand Council of Fascism and placed him under arrest. The Italian people supported the king, and the new government of Italy opened negotiations with the Allies, seeking an armistice. In response, Hitler ordered a commando mission to rescue Mussolini, which was successful, and the German leader installed Mussolini as the dictator of those parts of Italy under German control. Mussolini managed to hold the position only by virtue of the German troops protecting him.

Mussolini had his revenge against those on the Grand Council who had voted against him, trying 19 in a special court (13 of whom were in absentia) and executing the six which they had in custody. The Italian people under his jurisdiction were almost uniformly against him and partisan resistance fighters plagued the ever-shrinking territory as the Americans and British struggled up the Italian boot. By the spring of 1945 German resistance had all but collapsed and partisans who had been under Mussolini’s thumb since 1922 finally caused Il Duce to flee for Switzerland with his mistress. A communist partisan group captured them, gave them a brief mock trial, and executed both on April 28, 1945. The final pictures of the pair shown to the Italian people which he had led to disaster were of them hanging upside down at a Milan service station.


Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

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“The Myth of the New Man in Italian Fascist Ideology”. J. Dagnino. 2016

“Women in Fascist Italy”. Paul Corner, Research Article, University of Siena. January 1, 1993. Online

“Education in Fascist Italy”. L. Minio-Paluello, Foreign Affairs. July, 1947

“Italian Fascism and Youth”. Michael A. Ladeen, Journal of Contemporary History. July, 1969

“Censorship and Literature in Fascist Italy”. Guido Bonsaver. 2007

“Mussolini’s Football”. Multiple writers, Duke University. Updated 2013. Online

“Fascism, the Mafia, and the Emergence of Sicilian Separatism (1919-1943)”. Jack E. Reece, Journal of Modern History. June, 1973

“The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe”. David I. Kerzer. 2014

“Italy and the Great Depression: An Analysis of the Italian Economy, 1929-1936”. Fabrizio Mattesini, Beniamino Quintieri, Explorations in Economic History. July, 1997

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E International Relations – Hitler And Mussolini: A Comparative Analysis Of The Rome-Berlin Axis 1936-1940

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Soccer Politics – Mussolini’s Football

Football Times – When The World Cup Rolled Into Fascist Italy In 1934

The Guardian – Italy Mafia Networks Are More Complex And Powerful, Says Minister

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Australian War Memorial – The Corpse of Benito Mussolini, his mistress, Clara Petacci and other senior Italian Fascists