8. Cleopatra wasn’t just a beautiful and skilled diplomat, she was also a ruthless autocrat, as her murder of her own brother Ptolemy XIII showed
Cleopatra is famed for her beauty. She is also widely remembered as a skillful and wily diplomat, making strategic alliances, above all with Rome, to maintain her power. At the same time, however, the Queen of the Nile was also a ruthless killer. And it wasn’t just outsiders who fell victim to her bloody ambition. Cleopatra had a direct hand in the deaths of all three of her siblings. Indeed, ‘rivalry’ seems too gentle a word to describe the relationship she had with her brother and sisters.
When the Pharaoh Ptolemy XII died in 51BC, Cleopatra – actually Cleopatra VII – came to power. Sticking to the traditions of their dynasty, Cleopatra, then 18-years-old, was supposed to marry and rule alongside her own 10-year-old-brother Ptolemy XIII. They did indeed do this for a few years. However, the young king’s advisers grew suspicious of his sister’s ambitions. Heeding their advice, Ptolemy exiled her to Alexandria, where, he believed, she would be out of harm’s way. But he hadn’t counted on her ambition, nor on her the strength of her manipulative charms.
Both brother and sister realized that, if they won the backing of Rome, they would be able to crush their sibling rival. Famously, Cleopatra got their first. Hidden in a carpet, she was smuggled inside the palace where Julius Caesar was staying. She emerged to become his lover and his ally. Caesar agreed to help the Queen of the Nile reclaim her throne. He brought in Roman troops from Syria and took the war to Ptolemy. The young king drowned whilst trying to escape, weighed down by all his treasures. Cleopatra could rule on her own at last, not even pausing for a moment to mourn the death of her young sibling.
7. Genghis Khan was raised in a tough, unforgiving environment, and his ruthless streak was apparent from a young age as he even killed his own brother on his way to power
Genghis Khan wasn’t always a bloodthirsty warlord and military genius. As a young boy, he was named Temujin. But even then, he was ruthless, ambitious and willing to fight his own family in order to get what he wanted. While in the Mongol culture family always came first, the man who would be Khan was only too willing to fight – and even kill – his own brothers, even if in his early years, this was more a matter of survival than a question of naked ambition.
Born around 1162, Temujin was one of seven children. Their mother was required to raise them all alone after their father was expelled from their tribe. Times were tough and, according to the legend, shaped the young boy into the ruthless warrior he would become. Several accounts state that he murdered his own half-brother, shooting him in the heart with an arrow, in a dispute over food. What’s more, he showed not the slightest bit of remorse for the slaying.
Interestingly, however, the full brother of the murdered boy appeared to have borne no grudge. Indeed, he himself would go on to serve as a general in the vast army of Genghis Khan as it took over the known world. Since an estimated 40 million people were killed during Mongol conquests, whether directly in warfare or indirectly through forced famine, the warlord’s brief but bloody bout of sibling rivalry seems relatively insignificant in the grand scheme of things.
6. Adolf and Rudolph Dassler’s rivalry was so intense it divided a whole German town, though it did give the world two iconic sports brands
They’ve been called Germany’s own Romulus and Remus. Except the Dassler brothers didn’t find a city. Instead, they established two of the world’s most famous brands, Puma and Adidas. Indeed, the two giant global corporations grew out of single-family business. Quite what caused Adolf and Rudolph to fall out remains the source of much debate. However, once they did fall out, there was no going back. Their rivalry and mutual distrust was like something out of a soap opera. Even though both brothers went on to enjoy great success in the world of business, they never put their differences behind them.
By the time Germany was plunged into the Second World War, the Dassler brothers had been running their family sports shoe business for 25 years. And they’d been enjoying significant success, too. They even managed to persuade legendary US sprinter Jesse Owens to wear their shoes at the Olympic Games. But, by the 1930s, tensions were running high. According to some versions of the tale, the handsome Rudolph had an affair with his plain-looking brother’s wife. Whether this is true or not, by the end of the war, the two men were bitter rivals. Both were determined to stay in their hometown of Herzogenaurach. However, they would not work together. Adolph crossed the river and set up Adidas. Rudolph, meanwhile, established a factory across the river, naming it Puma. The corporate rivalry was born.
For decades, it was said that the whole town of Herzogenaurach was divided in two. If you worked in the Adidas factory, then you had your own pubs, clubs and restaurants, and it was considered taboo to socialize with, let alone date, a Puma worker. This continued for decades, and the two companies only really started to build bridges in 2009, when they held a friendly football match in the town. But, while the town has moved on from the rift, the two brothers never got over it. Even when Rudi lay in his death bed, Adi refused the priest’s call to come and see him one last time. It may have taken a huge personal toll, but the sibling rivals gave the world two huge – and indeed, iconic – sports brands, and few people who wear their products know that they were born out of such unhappiness.
5. Shah Jahan may have built the Taj Mahal for romantic reasons, but he was also an ambitious ruler who and blinded, imprisoned and killed his siblings
The fifth Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan, is best known for his architectural commissions. More specifically, he is remembered as the man who ordered the construction of the Taj Mahal, built as a testament to his love for his favorite wife. But he wasn’t just a hopeless romantic. As with almost all rulers of the time, Shah Jahan was also an incredibly ruthless man, especially when it came to keeping rivals at bay. And so, even if one of those rivals was his own brother, he wasn’t afraid of taking the ultimate course of action.
Born Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram in 1592, he was the third son of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. Of the Emperor’s four brothers, he was widely regarded as being the best man to follow his father, including by the man himself. However, his ascension to the throne was by no means guaranteed. Indeed, when Jahangir died at the end of 1627, the four young men all vied for control. In the end, the war of succession was a short one. The third-born emerged victorious and crowned himself Shah Jahan in February 1628. But, of course, his rivals still remained. One of his brothers was blinded and imprisoned for a short while before being executed. The others were simply murdered right away. Several other potential rivals or threats were similarly eliminated.
With his siblings’ taken care of, Shah Jahan was free to rule over the empire for 30 years. Under him, the Mughal Empire enjoyed a period of relative stability and prosperity. While he may have been a murderer and brother-killer, Shah Jahan was also a man of learning and culture and oversaw an architectural revolution, with the Taj Mahal the high point of his reign. In 1657, he fell seriously ill, sparking another war of succession among his own sons. The third eldest, Aurangzeb emerged victorious and put his own father under house arrest. Shah Jahan died, a prisoner in his own palace, just over a year later.
4. King Henry I of England was so worried about his brother Robert Cuthose that he invaded his brother’s lands and then imprisoned him for more than 40 years
William the Conqueror was a wise and cautious man. After his successful invasion of 1066, he had control of two kingdoms, England and Normandy. He also had several sons and daughters and spent a considerable amount of time wondering who his heir should be. In line with tradition, his eldest son, Robert Curthose, looked the most likely candidate. But the king knew that Robert and his younger brother Henry did not get along at all. Fearful that giving Richard the crown upon his own death would lead to outright war between the two siblings, he chose a third path. So, in 1087, another son, William II – also known a William Rufus – was crowned king.
Just 13 years into his reign, however, William II died suddenly. He was hit by an arrow while out hunting. Some say it was an accident. Other contemporary sources, as well as many historians since, claimed otherwise. Either way, it was Henry who took advantage of the event to lay claim to the crown. He was named King Henry I of England and Normandy in the year 1100. His elder brother Richard retained the title Duke of Normandy. He was far from happy, however, and made no effort to hide his belief that he should be the rightful king.
Surprisingly, the sibling rivalry just bubbled under for a few years. Robert carried on complaining but stayed across the sea in Normandy. By 1105, however, Henry had had enough. What’s more, he was hearing bad things about his brother, above all that he was drunk and lazy and that the people of Normandy no longer respected him. So, he invaded Normandy. The two brothers met at the Battle of Tinchebray in September 1106. Henry came out on top. But rather than having his big brother killed, he took him prisoner and brought him back to Britain. Richard was imprisoned in an English castle and then in Cardiff Castle, spending an incredible 46 years behind bars. He died an old man, still a prisoner, in his Welsh cell, in 1134. His little brother would rule for another year and he died of natural causes.
3. Artaxerxes II and Cyrus the Younger both raised huge armies and, to their mothers’ dismay, the brothers went to war for the Persian crown
Since he was the eldest son of Darius II, Artaxerxes was first in line to take the throne. And, indeed he did, becoming King Artaxerxes II of Persia in 404BC. While expected, the arrangement did not please the new king’s younger brother Cyrus. After all, the boys’ mother had promised Cyrus he was destined for great things. What’s more, most observers agreed that Cyrus was the more intelligent and stronger of the two brothers, plus Cyrus had proven himself after being appointed the Persian Empire’s commander-in-chief in Asia Minor when he was just 15-years-old.
From the very start of his reign, therefore, Artaxerxes was worried that his brother might try to take the throne for himself. Certainly, Cyrus did nothing to change his mind. As such, the King’s generals urged Artaxerxes to take pre-emptive action. He agreed. By 401BC, Cyrus had raised a huge army. Learning of this, Cyrus raised a huge army of his own, ready to meet his brother in battle. Indeed, Cyrus specifically targeted his own brother, realizing his whole army would crumble if their king died in the heat of battle.
When the two young men did meet, Cyrus was slain in battle. Quite who killed him is up for debate. Artaxerxes certainly tried, with Plutarch noting that the King aimed spears at his own brother. However, it’s likely that one of the King’s closest men dealt the fatal blow. Certainly, the brothers’ mother believed this to be the case. She had the man she believed to be responsible put to death. What’s more, the King’s court eunuch had cut off the dead brother’s head and hands. For this, the King’s mother purchased the eunuch in a slave auction and had him flayed alive.
2. Sultan Mehmed III gained control of the Ottoman Empire by killing all 19 of his brothers and step-brothers – and he was perfectly within his rights to do so
Fratricide was only too common among the rulers of the Ottoman Empire. However, even by the standards of 16th century Constantinople, Sultan Mehmed III was particularly ruthless and bloody. When he came to the throne following the death of Murad III, he saw rivals and enemies everywhere – and rightly so. The Sultan was not paranoid, but a realist. In those times, when Sultans had several wives and had numerous children with both legal spouses as well as with their concubines, there were usually several pretenders to the throne. And so, such rivals needed to be taken care of – even if they were your own brothers.
Born in 1566, Mehmed III was named Sultan in January of 1595. His was not an automatic ascension to the throne. During the Ottoman Empire, it was not taken for granted that the eldest son would inherit his father’s wealth or power. Rather, any son – legitimate or illegitimate – could stake a claim. Quite simply, it was survival of the fittest. What’s more, in order to ensure the Empire was run as smoothly and peacefully as possible, it was expected that a new Sultan would kill any potential rivals to death. Indeed, Mehmed’s own father had made this the law. In 1477 he decreed: “For the welfare of the state, one of my sons to whom God grants the sultanate may lawfully put his brothers to death.” Evidently, Mehmed III had no hesitation in putting this into practice.
According to the records of the time, Mehmed had all 19 of his brothers and half-brothers executed. What’s more, he had his own personal bodyguard of deaf-mute soldiers carry out the killings. Over the course of just a few days, all of the potential rivals to the throne were strangled to death, often in their own homes. Brutal and bloody it may have been, but was the policy of legalized fratricide effective? The Ottoman Empire lasted more than 500 years, holding large parts of Asia and Europe right up until 1923. Dynastic wars and power struggles were relatively uncommon, and the Sultan’s power absolute, so maybe there was something to it after all.
1. Jackie Kennedy and Lee Radziwill had it all growing up, but the sisters were always determined to out-do one another, so while one married a President, the other bagged a Prince
Numerous biographies have been written on Jackie Kennedy, wife to first JFK and then the billionaire Aristotle Onassis. Several have even looked beyond her relationships with rich and powerful men and instead focused on her relationship with her own sister. While the exact truth of the siblings’ relationship may never be known, many have claimed that theirs was an intense rivalry. According to some scholars, Lee Radziwill grew to be jealous and resentful of her younger sister and may even have committed the ultimate sibling betrayal.
Lee and Jackie Bouvier enjoyed a highly privileged upbringing. But even from the beginning, there was tension between the two. While the father doted on Jackie – even naming her after himself – their mother made no secret of the fact that the younger sister was her favorite. Their mother also instilled in them that the acquisition of wealth and power, rather than anything so sentimental as love or loyalty, was the ultimate goal in life. As a result, both sisters continually tried to outdo one another. So, when Jackie ended up marrying up-and-coming political star John F. Kennedy, Lee herself snagged the Polish Prince Stanislaw Albrecht Radziwill. One sister became First Lady, while the other became a Princess.
According to one recent biography, Lee may even have slept with JFK while the two married couples were on holiday one time. But did Jackie eventually get her own back? By 1964, Lee had moved on and was reputedly having an affair with the Greek shipping magnate Onassis, by far one of the wealthiest individuals in the whole world. Lee may even have been considering leaving her prince and taking Onassis as her second husband. In the end, however, it was Jackie who ended up married to Onassis, coming out on top in the socialite siblings’ rivalry once again.
Where did we find this stuff? Here are our sources: