You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as "Traitors"
You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as “Traitors”

You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as “Traitors”

Natasha sheldon - October 24, 2018

You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as “Traitors”
JOAK microphone & Tokyo Rose, National Museum of American History. Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain

4. Tokyo Rose: The stranded Japanese-American Student Made a Scapegoat for Radio Tokyo’s Anti-American Broadcasts.

Very similar to the case of “Axis Sally” was that of “Tokyo Rose” a young Japanese American woman recruited to deliver very similar broadcasts to US troops for Radio Tokyo. However, unlike Sally who was complicit, there is a real chance that Tokyo Rose was innocent. Born in Los Angeles on July 4, 1916, Tokyo Rose’s real name was Iva Toguri. In 1941, Iva had just graduated from UCLA. So her proud parents decided to reward her by paying for her to visit her sick aunt in Japan.

The timing could not have been worse. For twenty-five-year-old Iva found herself stranded after missing the last ship leaving for America after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The secret police visited her and demanded that Iva renounce her US citizenship. Iva refused. However, her decision meant she was classed as an enemy alien and denied a food ration card. Iva eventually found work, first at a newspaper and later at Radio Tokyo, where she typed out scripts for broadcasts to US troops in the South Pacific. However, it wasn’t long before she was broadcasting herself.

Under the alias “Orphan Ann,” Iva was just one of a group of English-speaking women employed to broadcast from Radio Tokyo. Known generically by the troops as “Tokyo Rose” their job was to demoralize American troops with false propaganda. However, it seems that aside from calling the troops, “boneheads,” broadcasts identified as Iva’s did not contain very much propaganda at all. However, after the war, a journalist who interviewed Iva decided to style her as the one and only Tokyo Rose. The American army investigated her for treason but released her for lack of evidence. However, when reporter Walter Winchell got hold of the story, he pressed for to be brought to trial.

The army extradited Iva. Her trial in 1949 was one of the most expensive in US history. It was also designed to make Iva a scapegoat. Transcripts of Iva’s actual broadcasts were withheld from jury and years later, Ron Yates, a reporter on the Chicago Tribune, unearthed evidence that witnesses were forced to lie. On September 29, 1949, a grand jury convicted Iva Toguri on a single count of treason for speaking “into a microphone concerning the loss of ships” She was sentenced to 10 years in prison. She was released after six and forced to live as a stateless individual until President Ford pardoned her in 1977 and reinstated her US citizenship.

You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as “Traitors”
Blanka Kaczorowska. Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain

3. Blanka Kaczorowska: The Polish Resistance Fighter turner Nazi informant and communist Collaborator

Blanka Kaczorowska betrayed her homeland not once but twice: firstly to the Nazis and later to Communist Russia. However, she began her covert activities with the best of intentions. In 1942, she joined the Polish Home Army, the main organized force of resistance in Poland. Operating under the codename “Sroka,” Kaczorowska became a member of an underground group operating in Warsaw, under the command of her then-husband, Ludwik Kalkstein.

However, the Nazi’s captured the couple and Kalkstein, and Kaczorowska turned. Together, they were responsible for the betrayal of at least fourteen underground officers to the Gestapo, including the Commander of the Home Army, General Stefan Grot-Rowecki in June 1943. On March 25, 1944, a special military court of the Home Army sentenced Kaczorowska in her absence to death for her treason. However, they never attempted to carry out the sentence because she was pregnant. Kaczorowska remained under German protection until the end of the war. Then she disappeared.

She re-emerged in Warsaw in 1948 as a student of art history. Here, Wlodzimierz Sokorski, a polish communist official who was the Soviet appointed Minister of Culture and Art took Kaczorowska under his wing. Sokorski was responsible for implementing Stalinist doctrine in Poland during some of the darkest post-war days and strictly controlled the media. Under his auspices, Kaczorowska became a Master of Art History and took up a post in the State Institute of Folk Art and Folklore Research.

Eventually, however, her past caught up with her. In 1952, she was arrested and tried for her wartime activities and sentenced to life imprisonment. However, Kaczorowska only served five years. She was released in 1958 and promptly became a collaborator again, this time for the communist Polish Security services. She remained in this position in 1971 when she left for France where she remained until her death.

You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as “Traitors”
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, 1951. Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain

2. Ethel Rosenberg: The American Housewife Executed by the US for passing on nuclear secrets

In 1953, Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg followed her husband Julius to the electric chair after being convicted of passing on information about the construction of the atom bomb to the Soviet Union. Both Rosenbergs were committed communists and identified as part of a spy ring by the FBI in 1950. Evidence against Ethel was initially thin. However, this changed when two other members of the group, Ethel’s brother and sister-in-law, David and Ruth Greenglass testified that it was Ethel who had typed up the stolen secrets from notes taken from David. It was this evidence that sent Ethel to the electric chair.

The Rosenbergs waited for 26 months for their sentence to be carried out, during which time they were offered a reduced sentence if they implicated others. Neither cracked. Outrage followed the execution as people regarded the couple as scapegoats of McCarthyism. The couple’s orphaned children agreed. In adulthood, they began to collect evidence that showed that the Rosenberg’s connection to a Soviet spy ring was peripheral at best. Julius had only passed on military information to the Russians during the Second World War when the US and the USSR were allies against the Nazis. However, he was dropped as an agent after the war because he no longer worked for the US army.

As for Ethel, the Soviets had never registered her as an agent. However, Ruth Greenglass was. It was Ruth who typed up the notes made by her husband, David Greenglass- not Ethel. David only implicated his sister after pressure from the federal prosecutors. Many years later he admitted he lied at the trial to cut a deal that saw him and his wife walk away free. It seems the only reason Ethel was arrested in the first place was to pressure Julius. When she refused to co-operate, a US prosecutor said that despite the weak evidence against her, Ethel should be convicted and given a stiff sentence. Essentially, Ethel Rosenberg joined her husband in the electric chair because unlike her brother; she refused to be bullied.

You Be the Judge of these 16 Fascinating Historical Females Labeled as “Traitors”
Shi Pei Pu in the 1960s. Google Images

1. Shi Pei Pu: The Spy who lived as a woman and who inspired the story of Madam Butterfly.

Strictly speaking, our last female traitor was not a woman. However, Shi Pei Pu lived as a woman and even managed to convince his male lover, Frenchman Bernard Bouriscot that he was one. The couple met in Beijing in the 1950s. Shi was an opera singer and Bernard was an employee at the French embassy. Although Shi was dressed as a man when they first met, he managed to explain this away to Bernard by attributing it to his father’s desire for a son.

Shi must have had convincing female features because the pair began a passionate if intermittent twenty-year affair, with intimate relations conducted in the dark. Shi even adopted a son who she managed to convince Bernard was his biological child. During their relationship, Bernard passed on 150 classified documents through Shi to the Chinese government. However, the couple’s espionage was discovered in 1983 after Shi moved to France. The couple was sentenced to six years in prison for espionage in 1986.

Ultimately, however, Shi’s treachery was to Bernard, by hiding the truth about himself- even though he later claimed he never told Bernard he was a woman. The trial, however, revealed that truth to the world and made Bernard a laughing stock in France. He was so distraught when he learned the truth about Shi’s gender, he tried to slit his throat. After his release from prison, Bernard slipped into welcome obscurity. He showed no sign of grief when he learned his former lover died at the age of 70 in 2009. Shi’s however, had returned to the opera after his release from prison. He refused to speak of the affair with Bernard. However, his story was immortalized in the 1988 Broadway show “Madame Butterfly.”

 

Where Do We Get this stuff? Here are our Sources:

History’s most infamous female spies, Anna Brech, Stylist, 2011

Tokyo Rose Biography, Biography.com

‘Tokyo Rose’ dies at 90, Justin McCurry, The Guardian, September 27, 2006.

Marina, Encyclopedia Britannica, December 14, 2016

La Malinche, an ambivalent interpreter from the past, Teck Language Solutions April 20, 2015

Making Herself Indispensable, Condemned for Surviving: Doña Marina (Part 1 and 2), Dr. Frances Karttunen, Mexicolore, March 4, 2011

On This Day: “Axis Sally” Convicted of Treason, findingDulcinea, March 10, 2011

The Facts About Ethel Rosenberg, Rosenberg Fund for children

Secret Agents in Hoop Skirts: Women Spies of the Civil War, History

Elizabeth L Van Lew, Encyclopedia Britannica, September 21, 2018

Gudit, Wikimedia Commons

The Queen of the Habasha in Ethiopian History, tradition, and Chronology, Knud Tage Anderson, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol 63, No 1, (2000) PP31-63

Elizabeth Barton, Encyclopedia Britannica, April 14, 2018

When Henry VIII met the Holy Maid of Kent, Anne Petrie, The History Press

Arsinoe – Cleopatra’s Treacherous Sister, Catherine Cavendish, Oh For the hook of a Book, April 6, 2017

Cleopatra, Michael Grant, Phoenix, 2003

Isabeau of Bavaria: Wicked? Sharon L Jansen, The Monstrous Regiment of Women: A women’s History daybook, September 24, 2015

The Final Days of Marie Antoinette, Will Bashor, History Extra, April 10, 2017

Sophie Scholl, Carmelo Lisciotto Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team, 2007

Kalkstein and Kaczorowska in the light of the UB act, Waldemar Grabowski, Biuletyn IPN No. 8-9 (43/44), 2004

Magdalena Rudenschöld, Nina Ringbom, historiesajten, October 18, 2004

Brita Tott, Wikipedia

Testimony of David Greenglass, The National Security Archive, George Washington University, August 7, 1950

The fateful life of history’s most famous female spy, Hugh Schofield, BBCNews, October 15, 2017

Shi Pei Pu, The Telegraph, July 3, 2009

BBC News – The Fateful Life of History’s Most Famous Female Spy

Normandy Victory Museum – Sophie Scholl and the “White Rose”, A Female Symbol of German Resistance

Time Magazine – TREASON: True to the Red, White & Blue

Court House News Service – Tokyo Rose: The Woman Wrongfully Convicted of Treason

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