5 – Battle of Munda – (45 BC)
Munda was the last battle in the civil war between Caesar and the Optimates and took place in modern-day Spain on March 17, 45 BC. After Caesar’s victory at Thapsus the previous year, the only remaining opposition to his rule lay in Hispania (modern-day Spain and Portugal). A couple of legions declared their loyalty to Pompey’s son Gnaeus Pompeius (and his brother Sextus) and soon, they took control of much of Hispania Ulterior. Two of Caesar’s generals in the region, Maximus and Pedius, decided to stay at a place called Oculbo rather than engage the enemy in battle.
They asked Caesar for help, and their leader responded by arriving in Hispania in quick time. He took just one month to travel 1,500 miles from Rome to Oculbo and came in December 46 BC. Caesar retook Ulipia and crucially, he captured the city of Ategua. Gnaeus’ native troops lost heart after Ategua and a few defected. The Optimates had their hand forced and could no longer delay battle, so they met Caesar at Munda. Gnaeus had up to 70,000 men and 6,000 cavalry against Caesar’s 8,000 cavalry and 40,000 troops.
Caesar tried to trick his enemy into moving off the hill, but when this failed, he ordered a frontal assault. A stalemate was reached after several hours of brutal fighting, but Caesar turned the tide by taking command of X Legion on the right-wing and forcing the enemy back. Gnaeus tried to strengthen his faltering left flank by moving a legion from his right but this only made matters worse. Caesar seized the opportunity by getting his cavalry to storm the newly weakened right side of the enemy.
The Optimates line was under severe pressure and King Bogud of Mauritania, an ally of Caesar, attacked the enemy rear with cavalry. Labinus, who was in command of the Optimates cavalry, tried to block this attack by leading the men back to camp. Unfortunately for him, Gnaeus’ soldiers believed Labinus was retreating and followed suit. It was a complete disaster as they were overwhelmed and crushed by Caesar’s men. Up to 30,000 of Gnaeus’ soldiers died, and he was executed. Sextus survived and started another rebellion but was eventually defeated and killed by Marcus Agrippa and Mark Antony in 35 BC. Caesar returned to Rome, but the ensuing triumph he celebrated was viewed as distasteful since he had killed tens of thousands of Romans. He became dictator for life but was assassinated less than a year after winning at Munda.