The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity

Khalid Elhassan - January 29, 2021

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Themistocles being honored at Sparta after the Battle of Salamis. Dissolve

13. Despite saving Athens, the Athenians ostracized and exiled this warrior

The Battle of Salamis, engineered by Themistocles, was the decisive Greek victory that turned the war around and saved the Greek mainland from the Persians. Persia’s King Xerxes, who until then had personally commanded the campaign, hurriedly took ship and returned home. However, there was still some mopping up left to do. King Xerxes left behind a formidable army under a relative to continue the campaign, but it was defeated and destroyed the following year at the Battle of Plataea.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Athenians rebuilding their city walls under the direction of Themistocles. Hutchinson’s History of the Nations

When the Athenians returned to their destroyed city, their Spartan allies asked them not to rebuild the city’s walls as a sign of good faith. Themistocles led a delegation to Sparta to negotiate and dragged out the negotiations while the Athenians feverishly rebuilt their walls. By the time the Spartans caught on, the walls had already been erected. Afterward, Themistocles’ political fortunes declined. Despite having saved Athens, his city screwed him over. Not given to gratitude for long, the Athenians ostracized and exiled him some years after Salamis. Nimbly, he went to Persia, and ended his days governing some Greek cities in Asia Minor on behalf of the Persian king.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Bust now believed to be of Scipio Africanus, formerly identified as belonging to Sulla. Wikimedia

12. The Ancient warrior who beat Hannibal

Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236 BC – 183 BC) got the “Africanus” honorific because of his military victories in Africa. A formidable warrior, he was one of the Roman Republic’s greatest generals and strategists, best known for his conquest of Carthage’s territories in Iberia during the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC). He closed the war strong, capping it off by defeating Hannibal on his home turf at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC to end the conflict with a Roman victory.

Scipio’s first mention in the historic record dates to 218 BC, when he led a cavalry charge that saved his father, one of that year’s consuls, from encirclement by Carthaginians. He survived the disaster at Cannae two years later, when Hannibal nearly wiped out a Roman army 87,000 strong. Scipio was one of the few Roman officers to keep their wits about them and cut their way to safety with 10,000 men – the sole survivors, who formed the nucleus of a reconstituted Roman army.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Hannibal Barca. Reddit

11. In his first campaign as a Commander, Scipio transformed the war’s strategic picture

In 211 BC, Scipio’s father and uncle were defeated and killed fighting Hannibal’s brother in Hispania. In elections for a new proconsul to lead an army to avenge that defeat, Scipio was the only Roman willing to seek the position, which others eschewed as a death sentence. Only 25 at the time, Scipio was underage to be elected a magistrate, so a special law was enacted to give him command. He opened the campaign and established his credentials as a warrior of note with a surprise attack in 209 BC, that captured New Carthage (modern Cartagena), the Carthaginian seat of power in Hispania.

Scipio’s capture of New Carthage changed the strategic picture and the course of the war. At a stroke, he secured ample supplies, as well as a great harbor and base for further operations. He then campaigned across Hispania, winning a series of victories. By 206 BC, he had wrested all of Hispania from the Carthaginians. Scipio then returned to Rome as its most successful general to date, and was elected consul in 205 BC. By then, Hannibal was isolated in southern Italy, cut off from supplies and reinforcements. Then Scipio transformed the war with another bold stroke.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Scipio’s campaign in Africa. Wikimedia

10. This warrior saved Rome from its greatest peril to date, only to be rewarded with persecution and prosecutions

Instead of going after Hannibal in southern Italy, Scipio decided to go directly after Carthage. Dismissing the Carthaginian warrior and genius commander who had so tormented Rome, Scipio boldly took the war to the enemy’s homeland by invading North Africa in 204 BC. The Carthaginians recalled Hannibal from Italy to take command of their armies at home, setting the stage for a climactic showdown between Rome’s and Carthage’s greatest generals. It came at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, in which Scipio won a complete victory that ended the Second Punic War.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Bust of Scipio Africanus. Wikimedia

Scipio returned to Rome and a hero’s welcome. However, while he was widely celebrated and lionized by the general public, he was hated by fellow patricians. Jealous of his accomplishments, and resenting his high status as the Republic’s foremost warrior, Scipio’s enemies went about tearing him down. They persecuted him with trumped-up charges of treason, bribery, and general corruption in order to sully his reputation. The ingratitude left Scipio disillusioned and bitter, and led to his withdrawal from public life. He retired to his estates in Campania, where he remained until his death in 183 BC.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Gaius Marius. Kooness

9. Before Julius Caesar, there was Gaius Marius

Before Julius Caesar secured his reputation as Ancient Rome’s most formidable military commander and most famous warrior, there was Gaius Marius (157 – 86 BC), a formidable warrior and a general who saved Rome from extinction. He was also a statesman who headed the populares, Rome’s political faction that leant towards the rising middle and lower classes. Marius was elected consul an unprecedented seven times, and was the first general to illustrate that political support and power could be secured from the votes of veterans.

Marius was not an aristocrat, but a plebeian from an equestrian or knightly family. He joined the Roman Republic’s political power structure as Novus homo, or “new man” – a term for those who were the first of their family to serve in the Senate. Marius owed his rise to his talents as a soldier against the backdrop of the Numidian War in North Africa, which was being bungled by incompetent aristocratic commanders. Marius rode the criticism of the war’s mishandling to get elected to his first consulship in 107 BC. He took command and swiftly secured victory.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Pre-Marian legionaries. Pintrest

8. The Warrior who revolutionized the Roman Legions

Gaius Marius initiated revolutionary military changes that came to be known as the “Marian Reforms”. The Germanic Cimbri and Teuton tribes had crossed the Alps, entered southern Gaul, and threatened Italy. They wiped out two Roman armies sent to meet them – sending Rome and Italy, always fearful of barbarians since an invasion by Gauls had sacked Rome and devastated Italy in 387 BC, into a panic. To meet the crisis, Marius opened the ranks of the Roman legions, hitherto restricted to propertied citizens who could afford to arm and equip themselves, to all citizens.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Legionaries after the Marian Reforms. Total War Center

Until then, Roman legionaries supplied their own arms and armor, and were not paid salaries. As a result, the legions were restricted to the financially comfortable. That kept out a vast manpower pool of Rome’s poor, whom Marius turned to and tapped to fill the Republic’s depleted military ranks. Instead of relying solely on those who could afford to equip themselves, Marius opened the legions to all Romans, including the poorest. Henceforth, the government would furnish legionaries with their weapons and armor, and pay them salaries.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Gaius Marius meeting an ambassador of the Cimbri tribe. Plutarch’s Lives for Boys and Girls

7. Gaius Marius’ reforms had unforeseen effects that transformed Rome

An unforeseen knock-on effect of Gaius Marius’ military reforms was the way in which they transformed the character of the Roman army. Until then, the Roman Republic’s military had been a middle-class and patrician institution of unpaid amateurs. The Marian Reforms transformed it into a professional army for whose legionaries’ military service became a career. They came to look to their generals, not the government in Rome, for rewards during service, and for severance pay and retirement benefits upon their discharge.

Marius’ reforms and his competence as a warrior and general enabled him to win the war against Numidia. They also allowed him to raise and train an army that crushed the Germanic Cimbri and Teutons, and removed their threat to Rome by 101 BC. That made Marius Rome’s most popular politician. By 100 BC, he had been elected consul six times. With the barbarian threat removed, however, Marius’ limitations as a politician, which had been masked by his brilliance as a warrior, emerged. With the emergency over, Marius’ political star dimmed as Rome’s traditional power brokers reasserted themselves.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
An exiled Gaius Marius in Carthage, after he was chased out of Rome by Sulla. Wikimedia

6. The decline of a formidable warrior

In 91 BC, the Social War between Rome and her Italian allies broke out. Marius was recalled to service, but had to quit because of poor health. Sulla, a former subordinate, prosecuted the war to a successful conclusion. The rise of Sulla’s star while that of Marius fell led to friction and jealousy. It broke into the open in 88 BC. That year, Sulla was elected consul, and was appointed by the Senate to command a war against Pontus. Marius got a tribune to call a popular assembly that overrode the Senate and gave command to Marius, instead. That was technically legal, but highly unusual and controversial.

Sulla surprised Marius and everybody by marching on Rome – a first in Roman history – and forcing Marius and his supporters to flee. Sulla entered Rome, where he got the Senate to pass a death sentence against the Marians, then marched off to the war against Pontus in 87 BC. When he left, Marius, who by then had raised an army in North Africa, returned to Rome. He executed about a dozen leading Sullans, and displayed their heads on pikes in the Forum. Marius was then elected consul for a seventh time, but died just 17 days into his term, in 86 BC.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Bust of Pompey. Louvre Museum

5. The Great Roman Warrior eclipsed by Julius Caesar

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, better known as Pompey or Pompey the Great (106 – 48 BC), was one of the greatest statesmen and generals of the Roman Republic’s final decades. Pompey was first Julius Caesar’s son-in-law and partner in the First Triumvirate that divided up and ruled Rome, then his rival, and finally his enemy. His career, as well as the ups and downs of his relationship with Caesar, were pivotal in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Julius Caesar. Encyclopedia Britannica

Pompey was born into a family that had only recently joined the senatorial ranks. However, it was a powerful and incredibly wealthy family, with vast holdings in Picenum in central Italy. Pompey’s father, who had a reputation for double-dealing, greed, and ruthlessness, was a general who became consul in 89 BC. An ally of Sulla, he was killed during the civil war against the Marians in 87 BC. As a result, a then-nineteen-year-old Pompey inherited his father’s vast wealth and, more importantly, his legions.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Romans under Pompey’s command taking out a pirates’ nest in Cilicia. Weapons and Warfare

4. Pompey secured the Mediterranean for Rome

When Sulla returned to Italy from the war against Pontus, Pompey joined him with three legions to march on and seize of Rome. Sulla then sent him to recapture Sicily and Africa from the Marians, which he accomplished in two lightning campaigns by 81 BC. Pompey then executed the captured Marians and was named Magnus, or “the Great” by his troops. After Sulla’s retirement, Pompey menaced the Senate into appointing him commander of the war against the final Marian remnants in Hispania, which he eventually won after considerable effort by 71 BC.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Marble bust of Pompey the Great, dated circa 50 BC. Pintrest

Pompey returned to Italy with his army, ostensibly to help put down Spartacus’ slave revolt, but in reality to guarantee his election to the consulship in 70 BC. In 67 BC, he was given authority throughout the Mediterranean to settle a piracy problem that had grown out of control. He did so in a brilliant campaign that lasted only three months. Pompey was then appointed to command a war against Pontus, and was granted authority to settle the entire Eastern Mediterranean. He accomplished that by annexing some kingdoms into the Roman Republic, and reducing others to client states.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
The rump of Judea, in blue, circa 63 BC, having been reduced to a small vassal state after Pompey annexed the north, in red, to Rome. Wikimedia

3. Pompey and Caesar were allies, before they fell out

Pompey’s settlement of the Eastern Mediterranean’s affairs was his greatest achievement. With few modifications, it lasted for over 500 years. He returned to Italy in 62 BC with a reputation as Rome’s greatest warrior and general. Pompey sought land upon which to settle his veterans, and legislation to ratify his settlement of the east. However, he was thwarted by political chaos in Rome. Pompey finally accomplished his goals after forming a Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus to divide Rome’s power amongst themselves, sealing the deal by marrying Caesar’s daughter.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
The murder of Pompey the Great. The Ancients

After Crassus died in 53 BC, followed by Pompey’s wife and Caesar’s daughter soon thereafter, the remaining Triumvirs drifted apart, and finally went to war in 49 BC. Caesar invaded Italy that year, forcing Pompey and the conservative optimates to flee to Greece, where they raised an army. Caesar followed, and Rome’s two greatest generals finally met at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Caesar proved greater, and Pompey’s army was crushed. Fleeing, he sailed to Egypt, where he was inveigled to come ashore, only to get assassinated and have his head chopped off as soon as his feet touched Egyptian soil.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Flavius Aetius. Warfare History Network

2. The Last Great Roman Warrior

Flavius Aetius (391 – 454) was the last great general and warrior of the Western Roman Empire. Born into a military family, he spent part of his youth as a hostage of the barbarian Visigoths, and later the Huns. Living amongst the barbarians gave Aetius valuable insider knowledge and insights, which came in handy later as he fought to prevent Attila the Hun from overrunning Western Europe. Attila ruled a multi-tribal empire dominated by the Huns, that spanned Eastern and Central Europe. During his reign, 434-453, he earned the moniker “The Scourge of God” for his depredations.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
‘Attila the Scourge of God’, by Upiano Checa, 1887, depicting the Huns’ invasion of Italy. Pintrest

Attila terrified the civilized world, invaded Persia, terrorized the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, plundered the Balkans, and extorted vast sums of gold from the Romans. He crossed the Danube in 440, plundered the Balkans, and destroyed two Roman armies. The Roman emperor admitted defeat, and Attila extorted from him a treaty that paid 2000 kilograms of gold up front, plus an annual tribute of 700 kilograms of gold each year. In 447, Attila returned to the Balkans, which he ravaged until he reached the walls of Constantinople, before recoiling.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Huns at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, by Alphonse de Neuville. Wikimedia

1. As a reward for Saving Rome, Aetius was murdered by his Emperor

In 450, the Western Roman Emperor’s sister sought to escape a betrothal to an old aristocrat whom she disliked. So she begged Attila’s help, and sent him her engagement ring. Attila interpreted that as a marriage proposal, accepted, and asked for half of the Western Roman Empire as dowry. When the Romans balked, Attila invaded, visiting his usual depredations. Aetius was put in charge of organizing the resistance. By then, the Western Roman Empire was a shell of its former self, and lacked the military means to stand up to the Huns on its own. So Aetius formed an alliance with the barbarian Visigoths.

The Greatest Commanders and Warriors From Antiquity
Flavius Aetius. Wikimedia

Aetius promised the Visigoths a homeland in southwestern France in exchange for fighting off the Huns alongside the Romans. At the climactic battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451, Aetius and the Visigoths defeated Attila and beat back his invasion. Aetius’ success aroused the jealousy of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III, who felt intimidated by his formidable general. On September 21st, 454, Aetius was delivering a report to the emperor when Valentinian leaped up from his throne, and out of the blue, accused the general of drunken depravities. Then, before the startled Aetius knew what was happening, the emperor and a co-conspirator hacked the general to death with a sword.


Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Ancient History Encyclopedia – Epaminondas

Ancient History Encyclopedia – Miltiades

Ancient Warfare – The Battle of Salamis

Appian – The Civil Wars, Book II

Appian – The Spanish Wars, Book XII

Encyclopedia Britannica – Aetius

Encyclopedia Britannica – Scipio Africanus

Evans, Richard J. ­- Gaius Marius: A Political Biography (1994)

Herodotus – The Histories, Books VI, VII, VIII

Hildinger, Erik – Swords Against the Senate: The Rise of the Roman Army and the Fall of the Republic (2002)

Holland, Tom – Persian Fire (2005)

Holland, Tom – Rubicon: The Triumph and Tragedy of the Roman Republic (2004)

Julius Caesar – The Civil War

Kitchen, Kenneth – Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt (1983)

Leach, John – Pompey the Great (1978)

Livy – History of Rome, Books XXVI, XXVIII, XXIX

Plutarch – Parallel Lives: Marius

Redford, Donald B. – The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III

Strauss, Barry – The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece and Western Civilization (2004)

Tyldesley, Joyce – Ramesses: Egypt’s Greatest Pharaoh (20001

Wikipedia – Battle of Megiddo (15th Century BC)

Wikipedia – Epaminondas

Wikipedia – Pompey