Fundamentally, the Spring Offensive was an attempt by German forces, under the command of Ludendorff, to end World War I with a German victory. The path to the Spring Offensive was cleared by the withdrawal of the Russians from World War I following the October Revolution, ending fighting on the Eastern Front. This freed some 500,000 German troops for service on the Western Front. The British and French attempted to prepare for the attack, but were well aware of the weaknesses in their own defenses.
The initial attack in the Spring Offensive came to the west of Cambrai, with a massive artillery assault beginning on March 21, 1918. The Germans advanced rapidly and successfully through the British Fifth Army, following the artillery assault with a division of elite troops, carrying weapons designed to cause fear. The Germans regained land lost in the Battle of the Somme, and brought large cannons within range of the city of Paris; shelling of the city began at once. German troops were ordered to take the city of Amiens; however, the assault and offensive began to fail due to supply line issues.
The Spring Offensive looked to be a great success in March, with the Germans declaring March 24 a holiday in celebration of their early successes. The Americans arrived on the Western Front at the end of March, and while there were some conflicts over command responsibilities, this was the German army’s worst-case scenario. By April, the Germans had suffered 230,000 casualties. By July 15, the Spring Offensive was over. German casualties numbered nearly one million, and Allied casualties around half that. The Americans had turned the tide of war, and were, by the end of the Spring Offensive, arriving in numbers totalling several hundred thousand each month.
The Hundred Days Offensive is the final significant military effort of World War I. Between the 8th of August and the 11th of November 1918, the Allies initiated a series of offensives against the Central Powers. This followed the Spring Offensive. With the end of the Spring Offensive, the Allies planned a number of counter-offensives, under the command of French general Ferdinand Foch. By this time, there were large numbers of American troops available, and British reinforcements for the Western Front had returned from campaigns in Palestine and Italy.
The Hundred Days Offensive began with the Battle of Amiens, eventually leading to a retreat by the Central Powers and the armistice that ended World War I. The Battle of Amiens, beginning on August 8, was a remarkable success. A huge number of troops, as well as some 500 tanks, took the Central Powers entirely by surprise. Attacking from the rear, the Allies created a 15-mile break in the German lines. By the 10th of August, the Germans began to retreat to the Hindenberg Line.
The Allies continued their counter-offensives, progressively pushing the Germans further and further back toward and behind the Hindenberg Line. The Hindenberg Line was a defensive border established by the Germans in the winter of 1916 and 1917. A series of offensives, sometimes called the Grand Offensive, directly attacked the Hindenberg Line. As the Allied armies continued to push German troops further and further back toward Germany, supply lines were significantly impaired, further weakening the Germans. The fighting continued until only moments before the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918.
There are no exact figures for casualties in the Hundred Days Offensive, but estimates suggest 700,000 Allied casualties, including injuries and fatalities. German casualties numbered at least 760,000; however, many scholars believe that number is quite low. In addition, as a loss became self-evident, large numbers of German soldiers deserted.
The Bloodiest Battle of World War I: The Brusilov Offensive
The Brusilov Offensive began with the Battle of Lutsk on June 4, 1916. The Brusilov Offensive is named after Russian general Alexei Brusilov. When the Germans began to attack the fortress city of Verdun, France, the French requested aid from their Allies. The goal was simple; the Allies would engage the Central Powers at other sites and locations, weakening their resources for the attack on Verdun. In March 1916, Brusilov received permission to begin engaging with the Germans and Austro-Hungarians, outside of other planned offensives.
The Brusilov Offensive began with a strong artillery attack on Austro-Hungarian troops near the city of Lutsk, in modern-day Ukraine. This is a tactic used by other Allies later in the War, and used with particularly great success by the Germans. The front was some 200-miles in length. Austro-Hungarian troops outnumbered Brusilov’s Russian forces; however, the use of artillery brought a rapid Russian victory in Lutsk. Within two days, the Russians had inflicted 130,000 casualties on Austria-Hungary, forcing changes to the Austrian military strategy. By the 15th of June, the Germans were pulling troops from the Western Front to support Austro-Hungarian troops under attack by Brusilov’s forces.
Brusilov’s initial victory was followed by a series of additional successes, through the summer of 1916. Eventually, Russian resources began to run out, ending the remarkably successful Brusilov Offensive by mid-September of that year. This Russian victory is often forgotten, particularly since it was so soon followed by the chaos of the Russian Revolution.
Brusilov inflicted a destructive toll on the armies of Austria-Hungary. The Central Powers lost approximately one million men, and another 400,000 were captured. Russian casualties numbered between 500,000 and one million, making this the bloodiest battle of World War I.
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