Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire

Khalid Elhassan - August 13, 2020

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Battle of Karansebes. Nothing is Written

5. Culmination of a Comedy of Errors

While the fracas between drunken hussars and infantrymen was going on, the Austrian camp stirred uneasily at the sounds of distant gunfire and screams across the river. When the mob of panicked hussars and infantry neared the camp, shouting “Turci! Turci!“, they were challenged by sentries, who shouted at them to “Halt! Halt!“. That was misheard by some non-German speaking soldiers as “Allah! Allah!” In the ensuing tumult, an artillery officer reasoned that the camp was under attack, and ordered his cannons to open fire.

As soldiers woke up to the sounds of combat, startled and confused, some began firing wildly. Within minutes, the panic and wild firing spread and engulfed the camp. Soon, entire regiments were firing volleys at each other, before the entire army dissolved and scattered in panicked flight. The Ottoman army arrived two days later and captured the Austrian camp, where they found 10,000 dead and wounded Habsburgs.

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
The Ottomans tried to reform and modernize in the nineteenth century, but the reform movement failed. Harvard Divinity

4. The Ottoman Empire Tried to Reform, But Couldn’t

By the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire had entered a period of terminal decline. The days of dynamic sultans and military prowess were long gone. Mediocre and inept rulers succeeded each other, while military defeats and a steady shrinking of Ottoman territory became the norm. What had once been a vibrant state was reduced to a backward realm that came to be known as “The Sick Man of Europe”. It owed its continued existence not to its own abilities, but to the inability of European powers to agree on how to divide it amongst themselves.

In the mid-nineteenth century, structural reforms were attempted, with the hope of liberalizing and modernizing the crumbling Ottoman Empire. They foundered on the rocks of religious and social conservatism, inertia, and entrenched corruption that resisted all efforts at cleaning up the system. So the Ottomans staggered on, going from setback to setback, until World War I, when they joined the wrong side, and effectively signed the empire’s death warrant.

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Routes to Megiddo. History Bytes

3. The Ottoman Army Defeated by an Ancient Ruse

The Ottoman army’s greatest defeat in WWI occurred when it fell to the same bluff on the same field as that of one of history’s earliest battles. The Battle of Megiddo, 1457 BC, is the earliest recorded battle for which we have reliable details. It took place between an Egyptian army led by Pharaoh Thutmose III, and a coalition of rebellious Canaanite states seeking to free themselves of vassalage to Egypt. The rebellion was centered in the city of Megiddo, an important hub at the southern edge of the Jezreel Valley, astride the main trade route between Mesopotamia and Egypt. Thutmose advanced from Egypt at the head of a strong army to Yaham.

From Yaham, he had the choice of three routes: a southern one via Taanach, a northern route via Yoqneam, and a central one via Aruna that would take him straight to Megiddo (see map above). The southern and northern routes were longer, but safer. The central route was quicker but risky, entailing passage through narrow ravines in which an approaching army would have to advance single file, vulnerable to being bottled up front and rear. Thutmose’s choice was repeated by another army over three millennia later, with results that would doom the Ottoman Empire.

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Pharaoh Thutmose III at the Battle of Megiddo. War History Online

2. The Ottoman Army Fell For a Reprisal of the Ancient Battle of Megiddo

Pharaoh Thutmose III realized that the central route to Megiddo was so obviously dangerous, that no reasonable commander would risk his army in its ravines. He also guessed that the rebels would leave it unguarded because they would not expect the Egyptians to be so foolhardy as to court disaster by running such an obvious risk. So Thutmose took the central route. As he had guessed, it was unguarded, and the Egyptians arrived at Megiddo sooner than expected, caught the Canaanites off guard, and won a decisive victory that secured Egyptian hegemony for centuries.

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Ottoman army carriages and equipment destroyed in the 1918 Battle of Megiddo. Imperial War Museum

3375 years later, in WWI, General Allenby, an avid student of ancient history, was confronted with the same choice as Thutmose III as he led a British army against entrenched Ottomans and Germans entrenched in the Jezreel Valley. He stole a march upon them and burst unexpectedly in front of Megiddo with an advance through the central route via Aruna.

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Mehmed VI, the last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after Ottoman sultanate was abolished, November 17th, 1922. Mideast Images

1. From the Black Death to Powered Flight

Six centuries – the lifetime of the Ottoman Empire – is a long time. The Ottoman dynasty had already established itself when the Black Death raged in the mid-fourteenth century, and it was still around as WWI raged in the twentieth century. During that span, Ottoman troops went from fighting against the Byzantine Empire with bows and arrows, to fighting against the British Empire with machine guns, modern artillery, and airplanes.

Distinctive Facts About The Mighty Ottoman Empire
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. Flickr

Defeat in WWI and its immediate aftermath finished off the Ottomans. After the war, the last sultan, Mehmet VI, signed a peace treaty that was seen as a humiliating betrayal by Turkish nationalists in Anatolia, the empire’s heartland. A nationalist opposition led by Mustafa Kemal (later surnamed “Ataturk”, or Father of the Turks) waged a successful Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923). By the time the dust had settled, Mehmet VI had been forced to abdicate, bringing to an end the Ottoman Empire, whose Turk heartland became The Republic of Turkey.


Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Daily Sabah, August 6th, 2015 – The History of Fratricide in the Ottoman Empire

Encyclopedia Britannica – Black Army

Encyclopedia Britannica – Siege of Vienna

Factinate – 42 Unhinged Facts About Ibrahim, the Mad Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Freely, John – Istanbul: The Imperial City (1998)

Gordon, Matthew S. – The Breaking of a Thousand Swords: A History of the Turkish Military of Samarra A.H. 200-275/ 815-889 C.E. (2001)

Kinross, Lord – The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire (1977)

Listverse – 10 Dark Secrets of the Ottoman Empire

Live Science – What Was the Most Pointless Battle in History?

Murphey, Rhoades – Ottoman Warfare, 1500-1700 (1999)

Ottoman History – Shehzade Mustafa

Shahin, Kaya – Empire and Power in the Reign of Suleiman: Narrating the Sixteenth-Century Ottoman World (2013)

Turkey For You – History of Seljuk Turks

Warfare History Network – Clash of the Tyrants

War History Online – Once the Greatest Army in Europe: The Black Army of Hungary

War History Online – Punch Drunk at Karansebes: The Austrian Army That Fought Itself

Wheatcroft, Andrew – The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans, and the Battle For Europe (2009)

Wikipedia – Anarchy at Samarra

Wikipedia – Battle of Megiddo (15th Century BC)

Wikipedia – Battle of Megiddo (1918)