If you’re going to conduct a war, transport is very important. By the time of the Civil War, rail transportation had been going strong in the North for nearly 50 years. The earliest railways were built in the North, and the industry continued to flourish there. In the South, meanwhile, they relied heavily on rivers for long distance transport. Obviously railroads can be placed nearly anywhere, while rivers are fixed. In 1860, the South only had around 30% of the nation’s railroads.
This was obviously an advantage for the North. Another was that because most of the fighting took place in the South, what railroads there were, were often subject to damage and sabotage. Of course, the North wasn’t immune to this as well, but you can imagine that the sheer number of battles that took place in the South, there was much more chance for Southern railroads to become targets.
Transport is a huge thing when it comes to war. It influences everything from the economy of the state to their ability to move supplies and troops around. As you might expect, with a larger number of railroads in the North, the north found it easier to move their troops around.
However, that isn’t really the advantage the North had. The true disadvantage was the lack of a proper railroading system in the South. With less coverage for rail lines at the beginning of the war, the South was forced to move troops and supplies by slower more tedious means.
Locomotives and railways were significant factors in the Civil War. Often times locomotives would be sent to reconnoiter enemy strongholds. With a top speed at the time, it was less risky for a locomotive to take on this task as it could outrun any cavalry. This made them even bigger targets as both sides sought to remove such advantages from their enemies.
A larger force has a significantly higher chance of winning against a smaller force. And while there are innumerable instances throughout history that challenge that idea, for the most part if you go into a battle with more people, you’re going to have a higher chance of winning. So is it any surprise really that when you discover that the North had a significant population advantage over the South that the South had a problem keeping up? The North could afford to lose more people, could afford to send more soldiers at a particular area (even if they had lost that area in battle before), and they could perform in more theaters of war at once with more people than the South ever could.
In the North, the population in 1860 was nearly 22 million, while in the South it was merely 9 million. Of those 9 million, only 5 million or so were white. When you consider half those numbers are female, you have a considerable advantage for the Union.
When we look at numbers of actual fighting men, you see that advantage realized. During the duration of the war, the Union put forth 2,128,948 soldiers into battle. That number varies based on what source you look at. Some are closer to three million for the North, while others have it closer to 1.8 million. For the South, numbers are also varied, but all point to their numbers coming in at about half of the Union’s fighting forces (anywhere between 750,000 and 1.2 million).
One of the reasons why the North had such a population advantage was that the vast majority of immigrants settled there. The numbers again vary depending on sources, ranging from 80 to 90 percent. When you consider that the majority of immigrants that did come into the South were slaves, it makes these numbers even less surprising.
This point is a bit murkier, and is less arguable on the side of the North, in some places. In terms of Naval Strength at the beginning of the war, you have to define what you mean. Neither the Union nor the Confederacy had real war ships that you could use to fight the war. At the start in 1860, the North had 50 (decrepit is a word used to describe them most often) ships, but none of them fell into the category of “war ship,” at least in terms of what you’d see near the end of the war. The South had nothing, as they were basically starting from scratch.
Playing into this, however, was something we already talked about: manufacturing strength. Because the North was able to manufacture their own vessels because of already existing infrastructure, they had quite an advantage over the South who had to both import vessels and build an infrastructure to manufacture their own navy, something that took a lot of time.
Now, as we said at the beginning of this part, this isn’t as clear cut as you might expect. The main reason being that what advantage the Union started off with was offset by some brilliant strategy and amazing ability to catch up by the South. While the North had an advantage of population, that didn’t translate to a large navy as it did with the army. This put them on much more equal fronts than what was usual for the other fronts of the war.
In the end, it is debatable how much of an influence the navy had on the outcome of the Civil War. It was incredibly important, but the war of the sea was very much a war of attrition, though the battles were awe inspiring, the most efficient use of their navies once established was using them to blockade and attack merchant ships, affecting the economies of both the North and the South.
If we had to choose the two biggest factors in the ultimate outcome of the American Civil War, economy and political establishment might be the most important. The Confederacy was not a government prior to secession. The government didn’t exist at all until February 1961, just two months before fighting officially started. That means they had no tax structure, no military structure, and no constitution.
They were very quick to catch up, despite the hardships they faced. The Confederacy ratified a constitution within a year (it was actually written and passed in March 1861, just a month after the founding of the government). They created and passed laws quickly, and they used their power to start officially bringing together militias to form their army.
That all being said, the North already had all of that. Moreover, their tax base was larger, allowing for more income, their banking system was more robust, and they had a much large cache of laws that allowed to prosecute a war much quicker.
The downside is that the North did not take the Southern states seriously at first. Or, putting it more accurately, they assumed that any rebellion could be put down quickly, which would allow the country to come together once more. They were wrong. This caught the North flatfooted, and forced President Lincoln to significantly increase the Union army numbers (500,000 were called up in the first draw after several embarrassing losses).
In the end, however, the already established Union government held the advantage once it got its act together. There was less political rivalry, and rules of government that the South had to create from scratch (though they used established ideas for most of it). This allowed for more cohesive decisions once the war went into its second year. The Confederates would be well led, though, so it did take away some of the advantage of the North.