18. In 1929, researchers from the University of Princeton turned a live cat into a telephone
In 1929, Professor Ernest Glen Wever and his assistant Charles William Bray of Princeton University tested how the auditory nerve perceived sound by turning a live cat into a telephone. The pair sedated the cat and then attached a telephone wire to its exposed auditory nerve. They then connected the wire to a telephone receiver. When Bray spoke through the cat’s ears, Wever, who was with the receiver, fifty feet away in a soundproofed room, found he could hear what his partner was saying. The pair’s experiments led to prestigious scientific careers. As for the cat, while it survived the first experiment, it did not survive Wever and Bray’s subsequent investigations.
17. In 1911, a Paris orphanage raised money by raffling live babies.
A Paris Orphanage happened upon a unique way of fundraising in 1911 when it decided to hold a “Loterie de bebes. “The bizarre raffle was held with full the ‘consent of the authorities’ and involved the winners becoming the proud adoptive parents of an orphaned baby. Reports emphasized that the best interests of the children remained paramount. The orphanage assessed the suitability of the lucky winners to be parents before handing over their ‘prizes’ and split the proceeds of the raffle between several charities. It seems that all concerned saw the lottery as a sensible solution to the problem of finding homes for abandoned children.
16. The most stolen work of artwork in history is the Ghent Altar Piece
The theft of the Mona Lisa in 1911 made Leonardo da Vinci’s painting famous. Few people, however, have heard of the Ghent Altarpiece, which thieves targetted no less than seven times. Also known as the Adoration of the Mystic lamb the 12-paneled piece was painted in 1432 by Flemish artist Jan Van Eyck. Anti iconic Calvinists intent on destroying it, greedy Napoleonic soldiers, unscrupulous art dealers, and the Nazis have all made off with selections of the panels. On six occasions, the stolen pieces were recovered and returned to the artwork’s home in St. Bavo’s Cathedral, Ghent. However, in 1934, the panel depicting the Righteous Judges was held to ransom. The thieves never returned it.
15. The Antarctic’s name had its roots in Ancient Greece.
Most people have heard of the Antarctic from Geography lessons, but few people know how the coldest continent on earth got its name. Norwegians first explored the earth’s most southerly continent in the nineteenth century. These early pioneers awarded Norwegian names to the places they discovered. However, the name of the new continent came from the classical world. The ‘arctic’ element of Antarctic (or ‘anti arctic’) derives from the Greek arkto or bear. The northern polar region was known as the Arctic or the land of bears because the constellations of Ursa Major and minor were visible from the northern hemisphere. So it was logical to view the Arctic’s polar opposite as Antarktikos: “opposite the land of the bears.”
14. Tsutomu Yamaguchi was the only person to survive both of the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The nuclear attacks on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are famous for ending World War II. They are also infamous for the destruction and human suffering they left in their wake. One man, however, managed to survive both bombings- despite being only 1.8 miles from the drop site on both occasions. Twenty-nine-year-old Tsutomu Yamaguchi was in Hiroshima on August 8, 1945, when a US bomber dropped the ‘Little Boy” atomic bomb on the city, killing 14,000 people. Yamaguchi sustained non-life-threatening burns to his upper body and two days later returned home to Nagasaki. The very next day, Nagasaki lost 73,000 people to the bomb known as ‘fat man.’ Tsutomu survived with only minor injuries.
13. The first person to survive a drop over Niagara Falls was an American Schoolmistress.
On October 24, 1901, American schoolteacher Annie Edson Taylor decided to celebrate her 63rdbirthday most unusually by launching herself in a barrel off the top of Horseshoe Falls, the largest of Niagara Falls three waterfalls. A large crowd gathered, confident they would be witnessing the schoolmistress’s inevitable death as the barrel plummeted down the 51-meter drop. However, cuts and bruises aside, Ms. Taylor made it intact- the first person to do so at Niagara Falls.
12. Louis Antoine de Bourbon-Artois, Duke of Angouleme was King of France for less than 20 minutes.
The reign of Louis Antoine de Bourbon has to be one of the shortest in history. After the fall of Napoleon, France restored the ousted Bourbon dynasty as a constitutional monarchy. However, by 1830, the regime was once again in crisis due to the excesses of King Charles X- the younger brother of the executed Louis XVI. To save his family, Charles decided to bypass his legitimate heir Louis Antoine and abdicate in favor of his nine-year-old grandson, Henri Duc de Bordeaux. However, for Henri to become King, Louis also had to sign the declaration. He hesitated to do this for twenty minutes, during which time he was nominally King of France.
11. The oldest existing Parliament in the world dates from 930AD.
Most people are taught to think of the British Parliament as the “Mother of all Parliaments” and so the oldest in the world. In fact, the Icelandic Althingi is the oldest running Parliament in the world. Icelanders established the Althingi in 930 AD as an annual outdoor assembly that was held 45km from Iceland’s modern capital of Reykjavik. All free men could attend the Althingi. However, it was also the place where Iceland’s leaders made laws and dispensed justice. Although in the fourteenth century the Danish Monarchy limited the Althingi’s role, it continued to survive as a law court and became supreme one more in 1944 when Iceland achieved independence.
10. Official records show only six deaths due to the Great Fire of London
The Great Fire of London began on September 2, 1666, in a baker’s shop on Pudding Lane. Within three days, it had wiped out 89 churches, and 13,500 houses. 90% of London’s 80,000 inhabitants were left homeless. However, the records record only six deaths from the fire. Amongst them were an unnamed maid from the baker’s in Pudding Lane and three people from St Paul’s Cathedral who were mummified by the heat. However, it is likely that hundreds or even several thousand people died in the fire. To some extent, disarray in administration explains to some extent the low official death toll following the conflagration. However, some bodies became lost amongst the ashes of buildings while other victims went unnoticed as no one missed them.
9. Ancient Egyptians don’t seem to have used pillows to sleep.
While pyramids, mummies and the River Nile may be hot topics in Egyptian history, the sleeping habits of the ancient Egyptians don’t seem to feature much in classrooms, probably because it is taken for granted they weren’t much different from our own. However, while archaeologists have discovered one 4000-year-old, wax-covered linen pillow, pictures and hieroglyphs suggest that most Egyptians slept resting their heads on uncomfortable-looking headrests. Egyptians made the headrests from wood, ivory or even marble, and consisted of a curved upper section supported by a high base. Often carved with the names of their owners, depictions of the headrests give no sign of any padding.
8. Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna ordered a military burial for his amputated leg.
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was Mexican president 11 times in the violent period following Mexico’s independence from Spain. Essentially a military dictator, Santa Anna saw himself as the “Napoleon of the West,” leading his troops into battle himself much like his French hero. In 1838, this determination to lead from the front led to a French canon wounding the General in the leg so severely that doctors were forced to amputate. Santa Anna initially buried his lost leg at his home. However, when he resumed the Presidency in 1842, he had the limb exhumed. The appendage was paraded through Mexico City in a funeral coach before Santa Anna buried it with full military honors and a monument.
7. Arabs did not invent the Arabic Numerical system used in the west today.
The modern western numerical system is often referred to as the Arabic system because it is widely believed to have originated from Arabic numerals. However, the system should more correctly be known as the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, for it developed in India- not the Middle East. Symbols resembling western numerals can be found dating to as early as the third century BC in Indian sources such as the Ashoka inscriptions. Trade with India probably facilitated the adoption of the Hindu system in North Africa and the Middle East, which in its turn found its way to Europe.
6. Pirate Henry Avery was the subject of the first recorded worldwide manhunt.
Henry Avery, also known as John Avery or “Long Ben” was one of the most renowned British pirates of the seventeenth century. Avery’s life of piracy began in 1691 after a stint in the Royal Navy. Within only four years, he was famous and became particularly notorious in 1695 when he attacked 25 ships of the Indian Mughal government, capturing loot worth around 78 million dollars today. The Indian government were outraged and retaliated by closing some of the English East India Company’s trading stations- provoking the company to offer a hefty bounty for Avery’s capture. And so began the first recorded worldwide manhunt. However, despite the $130,070 reward, Avery was never captured and disappeared from history in 1696.
5. The “D” in “D Day” is simply a repetition of ‘Day”!
The D Day landings on June 6, 1944, signaled the start of the allied invasion of France and the beginning of the end of the Second World War in Europe. Some people believe that the “D” stands for doomsday or decision day. However, the explanation offered by the British Imperial War Museum is somewhat different: ‘D-Day is a general military term for the day on which an operation or exercise is planned to commence. The choice of the letter D has no significance, and any other letter could equally be used. Its only purpose is to provide a point of reference from which all other dates can be reckoned.”
4. The First Bomb dropped on Berlin during WW2 claimed no human casualties. But it did kill an elephant.
As the capital of Germany, Berlin was a prime target for allied bombers during World War II. On August 26, 1940, British planes dropped the first bomb of the war upon the city. They destroyed a suburban woodshed, and two German civilians sustained minor injuries. However, the only casualty in the city was one of the nine elephants in the Berlin Zoo. The elephants remained curiously safe until an allied raid in 1944 wiped out another seven. Only one elephant in the zoo survived the war: Siam, an Indian bull elephant who was left alone in what remained of the enclosure.
3. North Korean dictator Kim Jong-iI wrote six operas
The composition of classical music is probably not something that immediately springs to mind when the name of former North Korean leader Kim Jong-iI. However, music was one of the many talents advertised by his official biography after his death in 2011. “He wrote six operas, “declared the biography, “better than any in the history of music.” Whether this judgment of Kim Jong’s compositions is balanced is a matter of opinion. However, the dictator did have an enthusiasm for opera which he shared with his father and in 1974, he encapsulated his musical ideas in a book, The art of opera.
2. America missed out on the metric system due to the misfortunes of a French scientist.
It is possible that in the eighteenth century, the US may have adopted the metric system of measurements if it were not for a series of unfortunate events that befell Frenchman Joseph Dombey. Dombey was sent to America in 1794 to help the Americans reform the imperial system of measurements inherited from the British. He took with him copper prototypes for the newly devised meter and kilometer, which he intended to present to Congress. However, his ship was blown off course to Guadeloupe where French royalists imprisoned him. H, Dombey was released- only to be captured by pirates who stole his measurements and held him for ransom. While in captivity the unfortunate Frenchman died of a fever- thus depriving America of the metric system.
1. During High School, Ronald Reagan was a lifeguard who saved 77 lives
In 1925, 14-year-old future US President Ronald Reagan took a summer job as a lifeguard at the prestigious Lowell Park sanctuary in Illinois. It was a job he kept up for seven summers. The young Reagan worked every day of the week, for twelve hours a day monitoring guests at the resort that were swimming in the Rock River. During the time Reagan worked there, he saved seventy-seven lives, which he kept a tally of on a log by the river’s edge.