20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions

D.G. Hewitt - May 11, 2019

Great inventors have been at the forefront of human history. In their studios, workshops or laboratories, these men and women have pushed boundaries. Unwilling to accept things as they are, they have dreamed of how things could be. And, in many cases, they have been willing to take risks, to try something new and to step into the unknown. Often, this has worked out well. With great risk can come great reward, and fortunes have been made and Nobel Prizes won by inventors who were prepared to go the extra mile.

But sometimes things don’t work out so well. Over the centuries, inventors have been injured in the line of work. Some have even been killed by the very things they designed and gifted to the world. Of course, in many cases, this was almost to be expected. The early pioneers of aviation or the men who invented cars knew they were putting their lives on the line. Some even accepted death as a price worth paying for progress. But sometimes inventors died in unexpected ways, like working on a new breakthrough in the laboratory.

So, from the men who dreamed of soaring like birds to the women who gave their lives in the name of science, here we salute 20 fearless inventors killed by their own inventions:

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Valerian Abakovsky and his most famous invention, the train that killed him. Flickr

20. Valerian Abakovsky died while travelling in the super-fast train he invented for the Soviet elite

The Aerowagon looked like something out of a steam punk universe. A railway car fitted with an aircraft engine and with a propeller on the back, it was capable of reaching speeds of up to 140kmph. So, when it was unveiled by its Russian inventor Valerian Abakovsky in 1917, the elite leaders of the Soviet Union quickly took notice. They ordered a test run of the new machine, and the inventor duly agreed. In July of 1921, with the rails ready, the Aerowagon set off from Moscow, speeding its was to the industrial city of Tula, some 200km away. The first trip was a complete success. However, on its return to Moscow, disaster struck.

The Aerowagon derailed at top speed. Somehow, 16 of the 22 people onboard that day survived the crash. However, Abakovsky himself was among the fatalities. He was just 25-years-old. Also killed were the British delegate to the Soviet Union, the German delegate and the Australian delegate. Perhaps embarrassed by the incident, the Soviet authorities cancelled the Aerowagon project. However, Abakovsky’s vision continued to inspire engineers around the world, including in the United States, where the jet-powered M-497 Black Beetle train ran for more than a decade.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
William Bullock trapped his leg in the printing press he invented and died soon after. Pinterest.

19. William Bullock’s printing press was revolutionary – but also deadly, as he himself found out

Being a factory worker in the 19th century was no easy job. Not only was it badly paid, with long hours and horrific conditions, it was also extremely dangerous. Since health and safety was hardly a priority of the factory owners, countless workers lost limbs to machines and many even died at work. But William Bullock wasn’t a typical factory worker. He was the man who invented the web rotary printing press – a machine that made printing faster, more efficient and much more profitable. Sadly, the machine that made his fortune also cost Bullock his life.

Bullock was visiting the offices of the Philadelphia Public Ledger in the spring of 1867 when the accident happened. The newspaper had purchased one of his printing presses and he was there to make some adjustments to the machine. Bullock’s leg got caught in the driving belt. Though he escaped with the limb still attached, gangrene soon set in. Surgeons decided the leg needed to be amputated. Tragically, Bullock didn’t survive the operation and he died aged just 54. His printing press – which could print up to 30,000 sheets of paper an hour – continued to be popular for years after his death.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Francis, left, with his brother on the car which was to be his downfall. Daily Telegraph.

18. Francis Edgar Stanley invented the iconic Stanley Steamer car with his brother – and then died when he crashed into a woodpile

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Stanley Steamer was one of America’s most popular – and most iconic – automobiles. They were the brainchild of early motoring pioneers Freelan O. Stanley and his brother Francis Edgar Stanley. The pair set up the Stanley Motor Carriage Company in 1902, using money that had made from selling their photographic plate firm to Kodak. And their Stanley Steamer was their most popular model, thanks in no small part to the brothers’ expert marketing. Freelan made headlines by being the first person to drive to the top of Mount Washington. Then, in 1906, a Stanley Steamer smashed the land speed record, reaching a speed of 204kmph.

Nobody knows just how fast Francis was driving his own Stanley Steamer when he crashed into a pile of logs in July of 1918. According to the witnesses, the automobile pioneer swerved off the road in an attempt to avoid some horse-pulled farm wagons. After his brother’s death, Freelan decided to sell his share in the company. The Stanley Motor Carriage Company only lasted a few more years. By the mid-1920s, the Ford Model T was much more popular. Not only was it better than the Stanley Steamer, Ford’s famous car was much cheaper too. The family factory closed its doors for good in 1924.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Franz Reichelt pictured seconds before his fatal jump from the Eiffel Tower. Wikimedia Commons.

17. Franz Reichelt believed he could fly – but his prototype parachute failing to save him when he jumped from the Eifel Tower

In 1910, the French aviator Colonel Lalance offered 10,000 francs – a sizable sum for those times – to anyone who could invent a safety parachute for pilots. This was a time when taking to the skies was a very risky business indeed and fledgling air forces across Europe were keen to find ways of getting their men back down to earth safely should their flying machines fail. The Austrian-born Franz Reichelt embraced the challenge. He invented a ‘flying suit’, a lightweight wearable parachute. He tested it on dummies. And it worked – albeit from just five floors up. Keen to demonstrate his new invention, Reichelt announced he would jump from the Eiffel Tower and float back down to the ground.

In February of 1912, the ‘Flying Tailor’ told the French press he had been given permission to jump from the Parisian landmark. So, early on a Sunday morning, he homemade suit and climbed to the top. Crowds gathered below, keeping the landing zone free. Tragically, the parachute only half-opened, wrapping itself around him. He plummeted to the ground and was killed almost instantly. Afterwards, the Parisian police and even Reichart’s friends revealed that they had expected him to use a dummy for the test jump rather than go for it himself.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Max Valier died in his lab rather than out on the racetrack. Wikimedia Commons.

16. Max Valier was an early rocketman who died when one of his own machines blew up in his face

The Austrian Max Valier dreamed of travelling between Berlin and New York City in just one hour. What’s more, even though he was born in 1895, as a young man, he even looked forward to the day that mankind would fly a rocket to the moon, or even to Mars. The Austrian himself only ever flew over the battlefields of Belgium, serving as an aerial observer during the First World War. When peace returned to Europe, Valier abandoned his studies and focused his efforts on science journalism. He wanted to bring the wonders of science to the wider public – and he believed rocket-powered cars were a great way of getting attention.

In the late-1920s, Valier teamed up with the automobile tycoon Fritz von Opel. The industrialist allowed the inventor to fit solid-fuel rocket motors onto his cars. Then, in 1930, Valier carried out the first test drive of a rocket car with liquid propulsion. But while he survived the high speeds, he ended up being killed in his laboratory when one of his rockets suddenly exploded. Valier is still remembered as a true scientific pioneer in his native Austria. What’s more, the German ‘Spaceflight Society’ he set up as a young man brought together many of the geniuses who went on to make trips to the moon a reality.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Alexander Bogdanov, left, playing chess with Lenin with Gorky watching on. Wikimedia Commons.

15. Alexander Bogdanov hoped his pioneering blood transfusion method would help him live longer but instead it killed him

The Russian Alexander Bogdanov was a busy man indeed. Not only was he a widely-published philosopher, he was also a pioneering science fiction writer and a physician. What’s more, he was also politically active, playing a key role in the emergence of the early Communist Party of the Soviet Union at the turn of the 20th century. So, by the 1920s, Bogdanov was exhausted. He wanted to feel younger and live longer. And so he started experimenting with blood transfusions. Lenin’s own sister agreed to take part in his early experiments. But above all, Bogdanov started experimenting on himself.

At first, it seemed to be going well. After 11 transfusions, swapping his own blood for that of a younger man, Bogdanov told his friends and colleagues he was feeling more energetic and even reported that he was no longer losing his hair. However, when the transfusion pioneer took the blood of a young student who was not only a different blood type but was suffering from malaria, he fell ill and died. These days, he’s remembered more for his writing than for his early attempts at blood transfusions and finding a cure to aging.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Thomas Midgley Jr. was praised in his lifetime but criticized after his unfortunate death. Pinterest.

14. Thomas Midgley Jr. had more than 100 patented inventions, the most boring of which ended up killing him in his own bed

The American engineer Thomas Midgely Jr. had a curious mind. Born in 1889 and then educated at Cornell University, he excelled in both mechanical and chemical engineering. But it was in the latter that he really made a name for himself. Midgley is credited with playing a key role in the development of leaded gasoline. What’s more, he had more than 100 patents to his name, including several CFSs (even if many of his inventions have since been banned for environmental reasons). However, rather than harmful chemicals, it was an invention he came up with in his 50s that led to his death.

In 1940, Midgely was struck down with polio. The disease caused his muscles to deteriorate and he was left severely disabled. Still keen to carry on working, Midgley invented a system of ropes and pulleys designed to help him sit up and get out of his bed unaided. It worked for a while. But then, in the summer of 1944, the device went wrong. Its inventor became entangled in the ropes and died of strangulation. Notably, when Time magazine compiled a list of ‘The 50 Worst Inventions’ of all time, two of Midgley’s creations were on there – and the killer pulley system wasn’t one of them.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Smolinski had high hopes for the flying machine he invented. Important7.

13. Henry Smolinski hoped his car-plane hybrid would change the way we travel but instead it ended up killing him

In the 1970s, several companies competed to try and build a successful car-plane hybrid. Among them was the American firm Advanced Vehicle Engineers (AVE). Set up by Henry Smolinski and Harold Blake, the Californian enterprise believed they could successfully fuse the body of a Ford Pinto car with a Cessna Skymaster plane. By mid-1973, the pair had their first prototype ready for testing. They hired a special test pilot, but he had to perform an emergency landing in a field when he realized that the right wing might fall off.

A second test flight was soon arranged. This time, however, the test pilot was not available. Smolinski decided to fly his invention himself. He succeeded in leaving the ground but then, when he attempted to turn in the air, the right wing folded. The hybrid plane plummeted to the ground and exploded, killing both Smolinski and his passenger instantly. An investigation concluded that the welding that attached the wings to the car body wasn’t good enough and this was to blame for the crash. While AVE’s flying days were over, several other inventors have since built their own flying cars – with differing degrees of success.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Sylvester H. Roper and the bike that would later kill him. Wikimedia Commons.

12. Sylvester H. Roper felt the need for speed – and ended up dying after crashing the steam-powered bicycle he invented

While he may not be a household name, among bikers, Sylvester H. Roper is something of a legend. Not only did the American engineer invent what’s widely regarded as the world’s first motorbike, he was also brave (or maybe foolish) enough to get in the saddle and test it out himself. Roper worked out of his workshop in Boston. In 1868, the unveiled the ‘steam velocipede, which was essentially a normal pushbike with a steam engine attached to it. Keen to show off his new machine, the inventor was a regular at the bike track down by the Charles River. And it was here he met his end.

One summer’s day in 1896, Roper took his early motorbike down to the river. He rode the course for three laps, speeding past some of the best young cyclists from nearby Harvard University. According to observers, he reached speeds of up to 40kmph. Then, on the fourth lap, he wobbled and fell, smashing his head on the hard track. He was pronounced dead at the scene. Even though a later autopsy revealed that he died of heart failure, Roper is widely seen as a victim of his own love of speed. The inventor was inducted into the Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 2002.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Louis Slotin died doing what he loved in the Los Alamos Laboratory. Wikimedia Commons.

11. Louis Slotin helped invent the atomic bomb and was then killed in a radiation accident at Los Alamos

Louis Alexander Slotin was one of the brightest minds of his generation. Born in 1910, he left his native Canada to study for a doctorate in chemistry in London. After that, he worked as a research associate in Chicago before he was invited to join the top-secret team working to develop an atomic bomb. Slotin was a key member of the Manhattan Project. His work at the Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on determining the critical mass values of uranium and plutonium. It was a subject that fascinated him. But the very pioneering research he was working on would end up killing him.

In May of 1946, Slotin was working in his lab when he had an accident. A slip of the hand accidentally set off a fission reaction. A hard burst of radiation was emitted – and hit Slotin full-on. According to the legend, Slotin threw himself over the radioactive material, shielding his colleagues and possibly saving their lives. As an expert in his field, he would have realized that he had been exposed to a fatal dose. Sure enough, his condition rapidly deteriorated and he died less than two weeks later.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Henry Winstanley wrongly believed his lighthouse would save him from a storm. Alchetron.

10. Henry Winstanley built an ‘impossible’ lighthouse and stayed in it when the biggest storm in history hit the English shore

When Englishman Henry Winstanley lost a second ship on the Eddystone rocks, a dangerous outcrop located at the very southern tip of Britain, he decided something needed to be done. Prior to becoming an international merchant and ship owner, Winstanley was an engineer. And so he put his training to good use by designing a lighthouse. While many warned him that the rocks were too inaccessible and that any attempts to build on them would be deadly, he went ahead with his plans. Work on the first Eddystone Lighthouse began in July of 1696 and the project was finished three years later.

At first, it looked like the lighthouse would work. However, Winstanley soon realized that, in a heavy storm, the waves and sea spray would rise so high off the rocks that they would obscure the light. He decided his lighthouse needed to be rebuilt, and this time made even bigger. The larger lighthouse proved even more successful. In fact, for the next five years, not a single ship was lost on the Eddystone rocks. So confident was Winstanley in his construction that he declared his wish to be inside his lighthouse when “the greatest storm there ever was” hit England. In 1703, the so-called Great Storm hit. The lighthouse was destroyed completely, with Winstanley and five other men inside. All were lost to sea, their bodies never recovered.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jawhari’s wings would inspire future aviation pioneers. Pinterest.

9. You Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jawhari believed the wings he invented would let him fly like a bird – they didn’t

Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jawhari was a Renaissance man before the Renaissance had even started. Born at the end of the 10th century in the city of Farab, in modern-day Kazakhstan, he went to Baghdad as a young man to study the Arabic language. While he was there, however, he also became fascinated with flight. According to the legends that have grown up surrounding his life and death, he believed he could master the art of flying like a bird. He devised a prototype glider, modelling it on a bird’s wings, and then set about proving that it worked.

It’s believed that al-Jawhari made his first – and last – flight attempt in the city of Nishapur in the year 1008. It’s said he took his homemade wings onto the top of a mosque and jumped. Some contemporary accounts claim that, by the time he came to jump, the inventor had become delusional, even to the extent that he believed he was a bird. It’s far more likely, however, that al-Jawhari was sane and rational and was just one of many early flight pioneers. Indeed, it may well be that he was inspired by the attempts at gliding carried out by Abbas Ibn Firnas in Arabic Andalusia or even by the supposed 11th century ‘flight’ by the English monk Eilmer of Malmesbury.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
At first, de Rozier’s baloon flights were a great success. Wikimedia Commons.

8. Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier was a French inventor who became the first person to die in an aviation accident

Ever since man first took to the skies, flying has been a risky business. While it may now be the safest form of travel, over the past 100 years, thousands of people have died in plane crashes. And a certain Frenchman called Jean-Fran̤ois Pil̢tre de Rozier was the first such fatality. The pioneering aviator died when his hot air balloon crashed during an attempted crossing of the English Channel. Dying alongside him was his compatriot and fellow inventor Pierre Romain Рand the two of them went down in history as the first recorded flight fatalities in human history.

De Rozier made his attempted crossing of the sea between England and France in the summer of 1785. By that point he had already carried out several successful trips in his hot air balloon. Most notably, he took to the skies in front of the French king. This alone made him a huge celebrity in his native country and inspired inventors around the world to come up with ways of flying increasingly longer distances. Despite his inglorious end, De Rozier is still credited with being one of the true fathers of manned flight. To this day, the modern hybrid gas and hot air balloon is named the Roziere balloon in his honor.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Aurel Vlaicu died in his own plane while getting ready for an historic flight. Doza de Bine.

7. Aurel Vlaicu was a Romanian flying ace and inventor who had dreams of soaring above the mountains in his own plane

As a young man, Aurel Vlaicu left his native Romania to study engineering in Munich. Whilst in the German city, he became fascinated by flight and began designing his own aircraft using nothing more than wood, paper and rubber bands. Years later, he had the chance to make much bigger models, and to fly them, too. Vlaicu secured funding from the Romanian Ministry of War and, in 1910, he made his first flight. At first, he flew gliders. But then he designed a powered plane and took to the skies in that. His initial flights were so successful that by 1913, he was ready to try and become the first man to fly over the Carpathian Mountains.

In September of 1913, Vlaicu took to the skies in a plane he had designed and built himself. On a practice run ahead of his planned flight over the country’s biggest mountain range, his plane came down hard whilst coming in to land. Vlaicu was killed instantly. Some of his peers suspected sabotage. However, it’s much more likely that his plane simply stalled at the wrong time. Despite never making his record-breaking flight, Vlaicu is still remembered as a national hero in Romania and celebrated as a true aviation pioneer.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
James Douglas was killed with the very machine he introduced to Scotland. eBaum’s World.

6. James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, invented a brutally effective killing machine and ended up losing his own head on it

In 1564, the city of Edinburgh invited inventors to submit their designs for a clean, efficient killing machine. This was a time of great unrest in Scotland, with the supporters of the exiled Mary, Queen of Scots being hunted down by those loyal to King James VI. James Douglas, the 4th Earl of Morton, accepted the challenge. The aristocrat, who was serving as the regent of Scotland, stepped forward with his Maiden, an early type of guillotine designed to slice off a person’s head in a single swift stroke.

It was perhaps fitting then, that, when Morton was arrested in 1580 and charged with being an accessory to murder, he was condemned to be killed by the very execution device he introduced into Scotland. Morton would have been impressed. According to eyewitness accounts, his death was instantaneous. His body was buried in an unmarked grave in the centre of Edinburgh. His head, however, was put on a spike at the city gates and it stayed there for 18 months until it was taken down and buried alongside the rest of his remains.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Otto Lilienthal drew huge crowds as he attempted to fly further and further. Vimeo.

5. Otto Lilienthal was known as the ‘Flying Man’, but the plane he invented brought him back down to earth with a deadly bang

Germany’s Otto Lilienthal became known as the ‘Flying Man’. And for good reason. Born in 1848, he grew up to become a true aviation pioneer. He studied the wings of a white stork, making painstakingly accurate blueprints for his very own glider. He even built his own artificial hill on the outskirts of Berlin. From here, he launched himself into the air using his own prototype glider in 1891. His first flight was a huge success. So much so, in fact, that he went on to carry out more than 2,000 successful flights. Unsurprisingly, the ‘flying man’ made headlines across Europe, especially when he flew for a record-breaking distance of 250 metres in 1893.

Given his experience, then, Lilienthal was relaxed when he took to the skies one sunny August day in 1896. He made several successful flights before trying again to break his own distance record. However, he fell from a height of around 15 metres, breaking his neck. Badly injured, he was taken to a hospital but died soon after. Famously, his last words were “sacrifices must be made”. His designs were used by the Wright Brothers and they credited the German with inspiring them to take to the skies themselves.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
The Five Punishments of execution in China were as brutal as they were imaginative. Pinterest.

4. Li Si invented the ‘Five Punishments’ and when he was charged with treason, that’s the way he was killed

According to Stanford University scholar, Li Si was “one of the two or three most important figures in Chinese history”. He was Chancellor of the ancient country for four decades, serving under two different Emperors between 246BC and 208BC. His achievements were legion. Above all, Li Si is credited with pacifying China’s enemies. And one way he did this was by brutally surprising both internal and external enemies. The politician famously invented the ‘Five Punishments’ and, just as famously, Li Si himself was killed by this brutal method.

Li Si was arrested in 208BC and charged with conspiring to prevent Fusu from becoming the next Emperor. This was despite the fact that the recently-deceased Emperor Qin Shi Huang had named Fusu as his successor. Charged with treason, Li Si was sentenced to die by the Five Punishments – the method he himself had devised. To begin with, his face was tattooed. His nose was then cut off and he was further tortured, though whether his genitals were chopped off is open to debate. In the end, Li Si was sliced in half at the waist.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Horace Lawson Hunley pictured beside the early submarine he would die inside of. Mother Nature Network.

3. Horace Lawson Hunley invented a submarine to fight the Union in the American Civil War and died inside it

Submariners have long been credited with being the bravest of all seafarers. And this was especially true in the earliest days of underwater exploration. Horace Lawson Hunley was a true pioneer, inventing the very first combat submarine during the American Civil War. He named the vessel after himself and oversaw all the testing of the H.L. Hunley. It was far from plain sailing. In October of 1863, five Confederate soldiers recruited to man the first boat died when a passing boat caused waves that flooded in through some open hatched. Dismayed but not beaten, Hunley decided to put himself forward for future testing.

Hunley was one of a crew of 8 who died when the prototype submarine sank just days after that first accident. However, the submarine itself was recovered and, with the holes patched up, re-launched soon after. In 1864, history was made when the H.L. Hunley carried out the first successful sinking of an enemy vessel, the Union ship USS Housatonic. Even that success came at a price, however, with all the crew killed when the sub sank whilst returning from the mission. Despite the setbacks, Hunley is still remembered as a true naval warfare pioneer.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Karel Soucek and the barrle he wrongly hoped would keep him safe. Pinterest.

2. Karel Soucek thought the padded barrel he invented would protect him when he was dropped off a tall building – he was wrong

Working as a stuntman isn’t for the faint-hearted. But Karel Soucek was even braver – and perhaps even more foolhardy – than most of his fellow movie professionals. The Canadian fancied himself as an ingenious inventor as well as a daredevil. So, when he unveiled his shock-absorbent barrel and announced his intention of proving its worth by being pushed off the roof of the Houston Astrodome, huge crowds flocked to the Texan landmark to see Soucek in action. The plan was simple: he would climb into the barrel and then be pushed off the roof and fall into a water tank below. The special barrel would absorb the shock and Soucek would step out alive.

The stunt didn’t go to plan, however. Soucek was shut in his barrel and dropped from a height of 180 feet. Unfortunately, the barrel hit the rim of the tank before entering the water. Miraculously, Soucek survived the initial impact but died soon afterwards. He was buried on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, the site of his greatest triumph. Despite his ignoble end, he is remembered as one of the last true daredevils.

20 Inventors Killed by their Own Inventions
Marie Curie was unaware of the dangers of working with radioactive material. Wikipedia.

1. Marie Curie won two Nobel Prizes but her research into radioactivity also killed her in the most painful way possible

The Polish physicist Marie Curie was famously the first female winner of a Nobel Prize. Moreover, she’s the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, a remarkable accomplishment. However, her pioneering work came at a price. Curie’s biggest contributions to knowledge was her investigation into radioactivity. Above all, she is credited with discovering the radioactive elements of radium and polonium. She also found a way of isolating radium. Her experiments meant she was exposed to radioactive substances for prolonged periods of time.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the dangers of ionizing radiation were not yet known. So, when Curie began feeling sick in the 1920s, she carried on working as normal. Not only did she keep radioactive material in her personal desk, she even carried it around in her pockets. Curie died in 1934 at the age of just 66. Even at the end, she never linked her illness with her work. Today, with the dangers of radioactive material much better understood, the Nobel prize-winner’s research notebooks and even her personal cookbooks are kept in lead-line boxes and can only be consulted by scholars wearing proper protective equipment.

 

Where did we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“35,000 Watch as Barrel Misses Water Tank.” LA Times, January 1985.

“This week in science history: Marie Curie dies.” Cosmos Magazine.

“Max Valier: International Space Hall of Fame.” New Mexico Museum of Space History.

“Thomas Midgley Jr.” Encyclopaedia Britannica.

“How Henry Winstanley became a hero in 1698.” The Guardian, November 2010.

“Demon Core: The Strange Death of Louis Slotin.” The New Yorker.

“Alexander Bogdanov: the forgotten pioneer of blood transfusion.” NCBI.

“James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton.” The National Galleries.

“About Otto Lilienthal.” The Otto Lilienthal Museum.

“16 inventors who were killed by their own inventions.” The Independent, December 2016.

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