3. Plaguing humanity since prehistoric times, tuberculosis continues to inflict suffering as the infection grows resistant to modern medicine and refuses to be consigned to history
Tuberculosis, commonly abbreviated to TB, is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs. With symptoms including the chronic coughing of blood, fevers, and organ failure, if left untreated TB is highly fatal, killing in approximately half of active cases. Spreading through the air on fluid residue expelled from the human body, it is estimated that as many as one-quarter of the human population is currently infected with latent forms of TB; however, of this sizeable proportion less than 2.5 percent progress to active infections. Dating to at least 17,000 years ago, with evidence of TB found in the remains of ancient bison in Wyoming, it remains one of the oldest still existing infections in the world.
The isolation of TB in 1882 would win Robert Kock the Nobel Prize in Medicine, although it would take until 1921 for a vaccine to be first administered. In 1918, an estimated one in six deaths in France was a product of TB, a figure that substantially declined during the mid-20th century. By the 1950s, mortality rates had decreased by more than 90 percent in Europe. Despite this considerable progress, TB persists in the developing world and continues to affect the developed more than commonly recognized. In 2014, in the United States, nearly 10,000 cases were reported, with 555 deaths resulting from the condition in 2013. Worldwide, between two to three million succumb each year, with the bacteria growing ever resistant to antibiotic treatments.
2. Dengue fever, transmitted by tropical mosquitoes, affects tens, if not hundreds, of millions of people per year, with limited treatment and vaccination options available
A mosquito-borne tropical disease, dengue fever induces an extreme fever, vomiting, muscular spasms, and severe skin rashes. Taking between three and fourteen days for symptoms to appear, in a small percentage of cases the disease compounds into dengue hemorrhagic fever, causing bleeding, blood leakage, and dangerously low blood pressure. First recorded in China during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 CE), the present strains of the disease are believed to have originated in Africa before proliferating throughout the globe via the slave trade between the 15th and 19th centuries. Despite being prevalent during and after the Second World War, a vaccine, only partially effective, was not discovered until 2016.
Due to the lack of preventative medicine concerning dengue fever, the disease continues to ravage the developing tropics. An estimated 50 to 528 million people are infected by dengue fever each year. Of these, a significant proportion requires medical attention and approximately ten to twenty thousand die as a direct consequence. Recommended treatments are limited and mostly palliative, including fluid replenishment and paracetamol. Even the developed world has not escaped the long-lasting disease. Hawaii, in the United States, is experiencing the largest outbreak of dengue fever since it obtained statehood in 1959, with 261 confirmed cases on the islands.
1. Responsible for approximately 200 million deaths between 1855 and 2005, in addition to devastating the Inca civilization, measles had been eradicated in the United States before opposition to vaccinations permitted a fatal resurgence
Lasting for between seven to ten days, the measles virus typically inflicts upon its victims an intense fever, inflammation of the eyes, and painful spots and rashes. Extreme cases of measles can also lead to diarrhea, ear infections, pneumonia, blindness, and even seizures. An airborne disease spreads via the coughs and sneezes of infected persons, it is rare, but not impossible for an individual who has already contracted the condition to contract it again. Once infected, there is no curative or specific treatment for measles, but supportive care, including re-hydration and antibiotics, can improve prognoses.
First emerging some time after 500 CE, a susceptible population of approximately 500,000 is required to sustain the measles virus. Consequently, after the discovery of a vaccine in 1963 a concerted effort to immunize populations began to eradicate the disease. Initially successful in this goal, measles was declared extinct in the United States by the turn of the millennium. However, due to opposition to vaccinations in contemporary America, measles has been allowed the opportunity to return. In 2014, at least 667 individuals across 14 states were freshly diagnosed with measles, whilst in 2016 a fresh epidemic begun in Arizona after 22 cases were confirmed.
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