5. Famous for killing roughly half the population of Europe during the 14th century, bubonic plague has not disappeared and recent years have seen an increasing number of cases reported in the United States
Entering the body via a flea bite, bubonic plague remains one of the most notorious diseases in history. Causing the body’s lymph nodes to swell and the patient to develop severe fevers and vomit profusely, the condition is most famous for eradicating between 25 to 60 percent of the European population, more than 50 million people, in the mid-14th century. Not the first occurrence of the bubonic plague, appearing during the 6th century to kill between 25 and 50 million people, the condition returned in the mid-19th century. Regarded as the first modern pandemic, the late-19th and early-20th centuries saw more than 10 million people die in India alone whilst modern transportation trafficked the condition throughout the globe.
No vaccination exists that effectively combats the disease, but with managed medical care mortality rates can be lowered to between 1 and 15 percent; in contrast, if left untreated mortality lingers between 40 and 60 percent. Despite advances in the developed world, the developing world continues to suffer from the bubonic plague, with more than a thousand cases reported each year in central Africa. Recent years have even seen a return of the disease to North America, with at least 1,036 cases reported between 1990 and 2015 in the United States – a number rising in frequency over time.
4. Responsible for the death of American President William Henry Harrison just thirty-two days into his term of office, typhoid fever continues to afflict humanity due to poor hygiene and opposition to vaccinations
Typhoid fever, taking between six and thirty days after infection to indicate symptoms, is a bacterial infection caused by a strain of salmonella. Spread by eating food or drinking fluids contaminated with infected feces, the condition causes extreme fevers, abdominal pain, headaches, rashes, vomiting, and constipation. Without appropriate treatment, typhoid is capable of lasting for months and carries a mortality rate as high as 20 percent. First identified in the 19th century, in 1896 an early vaccination was introduced in Great Britain to combat the prevalence of the infection in soldiers fighting the Boer War in South Africa.
Today, vaccinations are capable of preventing contraction for up to seven years and, in conjunction with concurrent improvements in public sanitation and hygiene, the 20th century saw a marked decline in instances of typhoid in the developed world. However, typhoid remains at large in the developing world, particularly India. In 2015, an estimated 12.5 million new cases were diagnosed worldwide, resulting in approximately 149,000 deaths. Modern modes of travel and exposure to these infected regions have reintroduced typhoid to the developed world, with roughly 400 cases identified in the United States each year including an outbreak in Oklahoma in 2015.
3. Plaguing humanity since prehistoric times, tuberculosis continues to inflict suffering as the infection grows resistant to modern medicine and refuses to be consigned to history
Tuberculosis, commonly abbreviated to TB, is a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs. With symptoms including the chronic coughing of blood, fevers, and organ failure, if left untreated TB is highly fatal, killing in approximately half of active cases. Spreading through the air on fluid residue expelled from the human body, it is estimated that as many as one-quarter of the human population is currently infected with latent forms of TB; however, of this sizeable proportion less than 2.5 percent progress to active infections. Dating to at least 17,000 years ago, with evidence of TB found in the remains of ancient bison in Wyoming, it remains one of the oldest still existing infections in the world.
The isolation of TB in 1882 would win Robert Kock the Nobel Prize in Medicine, although it would take until 1921 for a vaccine to be first administered. In 1918, an estimated one in six deaths in France was a product of TB, a figure that substantially declined during the mid-20th century. By the 1950s, mortality rates had decreased by more than 90 percent in Europe. Despite this considerable progress, TB persists in the developing world and continues to affect the developed more than commonly recognized. In 2014, in the United States, nearly 10,000 cases were reported, with 555 deaths resulting from the condition in 2013. Worldwide, between two to three million succumb each year, with the bacteria growing ever resistant to antibiotic treatments.
2. Dengue fever, transmitted by tropical mosquitoes, affects tens, if not hundreds, of millions of people per year, with limited treatment and vaccination options available
A mosquito-borne tropical disease, dengue fever induces an extreme fever, vomiting, muscular spasms, and severe skin rashes. Taking between three and fourteen days for symptoms to appear, in a small percentage of cases the disease compounds into dengue hemorrhagic fever, causing bleeding, blood leakage, and dangerously low blood pressure. First recorded in China during the Jin Dynasty (265-420 CE), the present strains of the disease are believed to have originated in Africa before proliferating throughout the globe via the slave trade between the 15th and 19th centuries. Despite being prevalent during and after the Second World War, a vaccine, only partially effective, was not discovered until 2016.
Due to the lack of preventative medicine concerning dengue fever, the disease continues to ravage the developing tropics. An estimated 50 to 528 million people are infected by dengue fever each year. Of these, a significant proportion requires medical attention and approximately ten to twenty thousand die as a direct consequence. Recommended treatments are limited and mostly palliative, including fluid replenishment and paracetamol. Even the developed world has not escaped the long-lasting disease. Hawaii, in the United States, is experiencing the largest outbreak of dengue fever since it obtained statehood in 1959, with 261 confirmed cases on the islands.
1. Responsible for approximately 200 million deaths between 1855 and 2005, in addition to devastating the Inca civilization, measles had been eradicated in the United States before opposition to vaccinations permitted a fatal resurgence
Lasting for between seven to ten days, the measles virus typically inflicts upon its victims an intense fever, inflammation of the eyes, and painful spots and rashes. Extreme cases of measles can also lead to diarrhea, ear infections, pneumonia, blindness, and even seizures. An airborne disease spreads via the coughs and sneezes of infected persons, it is rare, but not impossible for an individual who has already contracted the condition to contract it again. Once infected, there is no curative or specific treatment for measles, but supportive care, including re-hydration and antibiotics, can improve prognoses.
First emerging some time after 500 CE, a susceptible population of approximately 500,000 is required to sustain the measles virus. Consequently, after the discovery of a vaccine in 1963 a concerted effort to immunize populations began to eradicate the disease. Initially successful in this goal, measles was declared extinct in the United States by the turn of the millennium. However, due to opposition to vaccinations in contemporary America, measles has been allowed the opportunity to return. In 2014, at least 667 individuals across 14 states were freshly diagnosed with measles, whilst in 2016 a fresh epidemic begun in Arizona after 22 cases were confirmed.
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