16 Facts About the Brutality of Viking Life
16 Facts About the Brutality of Viking Life

16 Facts About the Brutality of Viking Life

Steve - November 29, 2018

16 Facts About the Brutality of Viking Life
This double grave from Grimsta in south-eastern Sweden contains the skeletons of two persons who had been decapitated. Swedish National Heritage Board/ Wikimedia Commons.

3. Dying to a Viking was not the end of the misery for an individual, as your corpse would be posthumously mutilated as a display of victory in an attempt to gain the attention of the Norse pagan deities

Believing that the time of their deaths was predetermined, it was beholden upon a Norseman to seek to acquire as much fame and glory in the time that they had to best impress their deities in Valhalla; consequently, each Viking sought to surpass another in their displays of violence to garner greater attention from the gods and earn their place in the legendary afterlife. This ever-intensifying competition in brutality in the name of glory culminating in the cultural practice of humiliating best opponents; it was insufficient to merely defeat an enemy, one had to shame them and actively promote your triumph to the world. An archaeological investigation of Viking Age graves by Niel Price from Uppsala University has produced substantial evidence, corroborated by subsequent studies, that, although each inherently unique, these remains and the composition of the graves bear consistent characteristics, in particular bodily mutilations.

As detailed by Elise Naumann, “there are lots of macabre treatments of the bodies. Some have chopped off limbs, such as in the Viking graves at Kaupang“, and a routine feature of those buried in traditional Viking manner was that the deceased “seem to have suffered a brutal death”; as mentioned, important individuals were often accompanied by their slaves into the afterlife, with the remains of these presumed thralls equally mutilated and brutalized. Naumann has hypothesized that “the fact that the graves are so disparate might mean that they are part of a burial ritual that recreates important incidences in the deceased person’s life. This would explain why each grave is unique,”.

16 Facts About the Brutality of Viking Life
A modern depiction of a Viking drowning contest; author unknown.

2. Viking sports and competitions were, unsurprisingly, incredibly violent and dangerous, with the likelihood of injury of death extremely high

Sports have been a fundamental aspect of human civilizations throughout history, with the Vikings no exception to this cultural pastime. One such known game took place in water, and can be best described as a “drowning competition”. The goal of this sport was to hold the opponent underwater for as long as possible; the Laxdæla saga details a drowning contest between Kjartan Ólafsson and King Ólafur Tryggvason, as well as between King Eysteinn and King Sigurd. Another, known as toga hönk or “tug-of-war”, involved two men facing each other and pulling on a length of rope; it is likely this competition, using similar movements and muscles to rowing, served as test of capability and strength for prospective crew. Ball games were also played by the early Vikings, of particular note Knattleikr. Described in the Gísla saga Súrssonar, Knattleikr was played every autumn at Miðfjarðarvatn and involved two teams of evenly matched players fairly ordered by strength; these teams engaged one another in full-contact, attempting to gain possession of the ball for an unknown purpose.

Even wrestling, a recurrent contest of strength in many early civilizations, was more brutal in Viking society. The sport of “Glíma” was fought in a wrestling field which contained a “fanghella“: a flat stone upon which one could break opponents back; the Kjalnesinga saga details a match between King Búi and an unknown opponent, wherein Búi wore a special jacket – fangastakkur – which protected him from having his spine shattered on the rock and allowed him to win. Similarly, the aftermath of eating a meal was, inexplicably, turned into a violent sport: hnútukast. In hnútukast participants threw bones from the meal at each other with the goal of causing injury; the Bárðar saga Snæfellsáss details a game of hnútukast in which Gestur threw a bone at Glámur, hitting him in the eye and causing it to fall out of the socket onto his cheek.

16 Facts About the Brutality of Viking Life
Detail from Stora Hammars I, depicting a man believed to being subjected to the blood eagle. Wikimedia Commons.

1. The Vikings possessed imaginative brutality, devising perhaps the most unpleasant method of execution in human history – the blood eagle

Given the immensely brutal conditions of existence within Viking culture, it is perhaps unsurprising that they are held responsible for the creation of the one of, if not the most vicious and painful mode of execution ever devised by humanity: the blood eagle. The blood eagle was a ritualistic and sacrificial method of execution, whereupon the victim was lain before his killer and who severed his ribs from his spine; through the opening created by this painful brutalization, the victims’ lungs were then pulled out and draped over their shoulders to create an illusion of wings. Accounts of the blood eagle appear just twice in surviving Norse accounts, although is alluded to in other sources, with both named victims of royal status and killed by a son in vengeance for the murder of their father, suggesting the reservation of the method of execution only for those of special significance and specific purpose.

The execution of the first victim, Halfdan Haaleg, also known as “Halfdan Long-leg”, is provided by the Orkneyinga saga, detailing the sacrifice of the son of Harald Fairhair to Odin at the hands of Torf-Einarr: “Einarr made them carve an eagle on his back with a sword, and cut the ribs all from the backbone, and draw the lungs there out, and gave him to Odin for the victory he had won. The second known victim, Ælla of Northumbria, described in the “Tale of Ragnar’s sons”, was executed by Ivar the Boneless in 867 CE in retribution for the murder of his father, the legendary Viking ruler Ragnar Loðbrók. Captured after a battle at York, the saga recounts that “they caused the bloody eagle to be carved on the back of Ælla, and they cut away all of the ribs from the spine, and then they ripped out his lungs.”

Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

Viking Answer Lady – Hólmgang and Einvigi: Scandinavian Forms of the Duel

New York Time Magazine – Viking Age Smallpox Complicates Story of Viral Evolution

Listverse – 10 Interesting Viking Rituals

History Extra – The Truth About Viking Berserkers

Medievalists – The Vikings, Their Worms, And The Diseases They Got

History Channel – What We Know About Vikings and Slaves

“Magical Medicine in Viking Scandinavia”, D. Robertson, Journal of Medical History (1976)

“The Vikings and Homosexuality”, Gunnora Hallakarva, Fordham University

“The Unmanly Man: Concepts of Sexual Defamation in Early Northern Society”, Preben Sorenson, Odense University Press (1983)

“Hólmganga and Einvigi: Scandinavian Forms of the Duel”, Olav Bo, Medical Scandinavia (1969)

“The Old Icelandic Duel”, Marlene Ciklamini, Scandinavian Studies (1963)

“Some Characteristics of the Icelandic ‘Holmganga'”, Gwyn Jones, Journal of English and Germanic Philology (1933)

“Tooth filing was a worldwide craze among Viking men”, Maev Kennedy, The Guardian (July 11, 2011)

“Fang-tastic! Viking remains reveal warriors filed their teeth to appear more ferocious to enemies”, The Daily Mail (July 7, 2011)

“Incisor raiding: Viking marauders had patterns filed into their teeth”, Maev Kennedy, The Guardian (July 4, 2011)

“The Historical Encylopedia of World Slavery: Volume 1, A-K”, Junius Rodriguez, ABC-CLIO (1997)

“How the Barbarian Invasions Shaped the Modern World”, Thomas Craughwell, Fair Winds Press.

“The Sagas of the Icelanders”, Jane Smiley, Penguin Classics (2001)

“Northern Antiquities: or An Historical Account of the Manners, Customs, and Laws, Maritime Expeditions and Discoveries, Languages and Literature, of the Ancient Scandinavians”, Percy Thomas, George Woodfall & Son (1847)

“Icelandic Sagas, Vol III: The Orkneyingers’ Saga”, George Dasent (1894)

“On Going Berserk: A Neurochemical Inquiry”, Howard Fabing, Scientific Monthly (1956)

“The Berserker: His Origin and Development in Old Norse Literature”, Benjamin Blaney, University of Colorado (1972)

“Sports and Games in Icelandic Saga Literature”, John Martin, Scandinavian Studies (2003)

“Icelanders in the Viking Age: The People of the Sagas”, William Short, McFarland and Company (2010)

“Viking atrocity and Skaldic verse: The Rite of the Blood-Eagle”, Roberta Frank, English Historical Review (1984)

“The Vengeance of Ivarr the Boneless”, Mike Dash, Smithsonian Magazine (March 13, 2013)

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