12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History
12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History

12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History

Khalid Elhassan - September 2, 2017

12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History
German troops, preceded by regimental band, march across Rhine bridge into demilitarized zone. Imperial War Museum

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The 1919 Treaty of Versailles forbade the defeated Germans from stationing armed forces in the Rhineland – a region in western Germany bordering France, Belgium, and the Netherlands – and expressly specified that a violation “in any manner whatsoever… shall be regarded as committing a hostile act“. The demilitarized Rhineland was the single greatest guarantor of peace in Europe because it made it impossible for Germany to attack her western neighbors.

Simultaneously, because it left Germany defenseless on her western borders, it made it impossible to attack her eastern neighbors because doing so would leave her open to a devastating attack from those eastern neighbors’ ally, France, on Germany’s unprotected west.

While a demilitarized Rhineland was positive for European peace, it was a humiliating negative for German pride, and one of Hitler’s most popular campaign promises during the Nazis’ rise to power was to remilitarize the Rhineland. In 1936, Hitler decided to send soldiers into the Rhineland – a huge risk, considering that the German military at the time was in no condition to do anything other than beat a humiliating retreat if the Western Allies had opposed the remilitarization with even minimal armed force. Hitler however gambled that while the Western Allies had the power to thwart him, they lacked the will to actually use that power.

On March 7, 1936, against the advice of his generals, Hitler ordered 19 German battalions to occupy the Rhineland, in direct violation of the treaties of Versailles and Locarno. He won the gamble: the British and French protested, but neither took direct action to enforce the treaties’ terms. Having taken the measure of France and Britain, Hitler’s appetite was whetted for ever riskier gambles in which he calculated that he could act egregiously, secure in the knowledge that the Western Allies would strongly protest and vehemently condemn, but stop short of direct action. He kept escalating until his invasion of Poland in 1939, when he was stunned that Britain and France had finally had enough and declared war.

12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History
Map of Operation Bertram. Obscure Histories

Operation Bertram

The strip of land over which the 1942 Battle of El Alamein was to be fought was bounded to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, and to the south by the Qattara Depression, impassable to armor and wheeled vehicles (see map above). Operation Bertram was a misdirection plan employed by the British to deceive Erwin Rommel about British intentions regarding the direction of their upcoming attack. That was particularly important because Rommel faced fuel shortages which made redeployment of most of his troops, particularly the Italians, difficult or even impossible once fighting commenced. Wherever Rommel deployed his forces, that is where most of them would remain during the battle, so the British set out to convince him to deploy them in the wrong place.

The British planned to attack in the north, and to conceal that a specialist unit is known as the Camouflage, Development, and Training Centre (CDTC) was cobbled together from filmmakers, stage magicians, painters, sculptors, and architects, and tasked with flummoxing the enemy. The CDTC set out to hide the actual troop and materiel buildup in the north, make what buildup could not be concealed appear slower than it actually was, and convince the enemy that the main attack would fall upon the southern sector of the line and not the northern.

To that end, the British fed the Germans misinformation via turned spies, and borrowing from stage magic, built wood and canvass contraptions to fool German aerial reconnaissance by making concentrations of armor appear like trucks, and make transport trucks look like menacing concentrations of tanks. To misdirect about the buildup of supplies and munitions, the CDTC set up fake ammunition dumps, and with water being the most precious resource in the desert, whose concentration offered strong indicia of intent, built a 200-mile dummy water pipeline to the southern sector of the Alamein line.

The deception worked, and when the Battle of El Alamein commenced with a massive artillery bombardment on the night of October 23, 1942, the enemy commanders were surprised that the British Eighth Army’s main thrust came in the north, and not in the south as had been expected. As had been predicted, fuel shortages prevented the Axis from effectively redeploying troops from the southern sector to reinforce and meet the threat to the north. The battle ended in a complete British victory, and a retreat that culminated 6 months later in the complete surrender of all Axis forces in North Africa.

12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History
Inflatable dummy tank used in deception plan to mislead the Germans about Allied intentions in the runup to the Normandy landings. Alchetron

Operation Bodyguard

In wartime truth is so precious, that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies” – Winston Churchill.

Operation Bodyguard was a multifaceted and complex plan to deceive the Germans about the time and location of the Western Allies’ intended invasion of Europe in 1944. The plan had three goals: conceal the actual time and date of the invasion; convince the Germans that the main invasion would land in the Pas de Calais; and convince the Germans after the Normandy landings to maintain a strong defense in the Pas de Calais for at least two weeks, rather than drain it of defenders to reinforce their troops in Normandy.

A sub-plan of Bodyguard was Operation Fortitude, which created a fictitious “First US Army Group” in southeast England under the command of General George S. Patton, and sold its existence to the Germans with a combination of fake radio traffic between fictitious FUSAG units, allowing German air reconnaissance to fly over and photograph concentrations of FUSAG tanks and transports that were, in reality, inflatable dummies, and feeding German intelligence fake reports via double agents and turned spies about FUSAG’s intentions to invade the Pas de Calais so as to tie down the German defenders there. A subsidiary, Fortitude North, created a fictitious British Fourth Army in Scotland and convinced the Germans that it planned to invade Norway so as to tie down the German divisions there.

After D-Day, Bodyguard prevented the Germans from committing fully to a counterattack by convincing them that the Normandy landings were not the main event, but the first in a series of landings. The German high command was thus led to keep units guarding other potential landing sites, mainly the Pas de Calais which was threatened by the fictitious FUSAG under Patton, instead of sending them to reinforce the defenders in Normandy.

Bodyguard had hoped to convince the Germans to stay put in the Pas de Calais for two weeks after D-Day, instead of immediately sending the units there to reinforce Normandy. The plan worked so well that the Germans stayed put in the Pas de Calais for seven weeks instead of the hoped-for two, which allowed the Allies time to build a beachhead in Normandy, before breaking out to liberate France and Western Europe.

12 of the Greatest Military Bluffs in History
Destroyers and destroyer escorts from Taffy 3 laying smokescreen while under fire during Battle off Samar. Wikimedia

Battle off Samar

The Battle of Leyte Gulf, history’s biggest naval engagement, was the outcome of a complex Japanese plan featuring many moving parts and attacks from various directions, all intended to draw off the main American fleet guarding the American landings at Leyte Gulf and send it on wild goose chase, at which point a powerful Japanese naval contingent would fall upon the unprotected Leyte Gulf and devastate the Americans there. The plan worked well. Japanese aircraft carriers were dangled as bait for Admiral William F. Halsey, and he steamed off with his powerful 3rd Fleet to sink them, telling nobody. He left behind a small fleet of escort carriers and destroyer escorts that had been repurposed for ground attack and support duties and had little in the way of anti-ship weapons.

While Halsey was off chasing the Japanese decoy fleet, a powerful fleet of 23 Japanese battleships and heavy cruisers, including the world’s most powerful battleship ever, the 18.1 inch gun Yamato, showed up north of Leyte Gulf, steaming towards the landing site under the command of an admiral Kurita. The Americans were caught by surprise, as it was assumed that Halsey was in the north guarding against attack from that direction.

The only thing standing between the Japanese and a massacre of the Americans at Leyte Gulf was an underwhelming collection of escort carriers and destroyer escorts, of whom the northernmost contingent which first came in contact with the Japanese, 7 destroyers and destroyer escorts nicknamed “tin cans” for their lack of protection, was commanded by rear admiral Clifton Sprague and known as “Taffy 3“.

Aware that his destroyers’ 5 inch guns stood no chance against the armored behemoths steaming towards Leyte Gulf, but also aware that thousands of Americans would die if the Japanese reached the unprotected ships in Leyte, Sprague ordered Taffy 3 into a suicidal charge. The desperate attacks of the American “tin cans” were supported by planes flown from the escort carriers, making strafing attacks or dropping high explosives suitable for ground attack but mostly useless against the Japanese ships, and when they ran out of ammunition, kept making dry strafing and bombing runs to discomfit the Japanese.

So reckless and incessant were those gadfly attacks that the Japanese admiral lost his nerve. Convincing himself that the opposition he faced was far stronger than it actually was, and must be the first outer layer of a powerful US naval presence, admiral Kurita, who had an overwhelming naval victory in his grasp if had steamed on for another hour to bring his heavy guns within range of Leyte, turned his ships around and sailed away, gifting the Americans in Leyte Gulf with an unexpected and seemingly miraculous reprieve.


Sources For Further Reading:

Deep English – Christopher Columbus Used the Moon To Feed His Men

Smithsonian Magazine – Columbus’ Confusion About the New World

History Collection – A New World: 6 Ways the Journeys of Columbus Changed Civilization

Encyclopedia Britannica – Robert Baden-Powell

The Guardian – Mafeking Revisited

Encyclopedia Britannica – Battle of Leyte Gulf

American Heritage Magazine – The Battle Off Samar

The National WWII Museum – Eyewitness to the Battle off Samar and the Loss of the USS St. Lo