19. Was Mulan a real person in history?
Those who argue for the truth at the basis of the Mulan legend frequently cite her appearances in the documents of the succeeding dynasties of Chinese history and development. Yet none of the records regarded as official histories include mention of her by name. She appears in songs and ballads, poetry and novels, plays and songs. She does not appear in military histories, official records, including tax and census records, or any other official documents. If she attained godlike status, as one memorial suggests, it was not among the Han with whom she is most closely associated today. According to the oldest reference to Mulan, the Ballad of Mulan, she would have been of the Tuoba people.
Archaeological excavations have revealed numerous graves of women warriors in China and Mongolia, in some cases buried with their weapons. Women warriors in China also preceded the Ballad of Mulan. Fu Hao led troops during the Shang Dynasty, circa 1200 BCE, with records of her story left on oracle bones, the oldest method of written records in Ancient China. Over 250 such oracle bones record her story and other details of her life. Yet nothing similar records the story of Mulan. Her history is one of the romantic arts, rather than military. Many other female military leaders are well documented in Chinese history, including Qin Liangyu, who attained the highest military rank available during the Ming Dynasty. But the official records are blank regarding the legend of Mulan.