Following World War II Great Britain reclaimed its colony of Hong Kong from the Japanese. After the end of the Chinese Civil War and the ascension of the Communist government in mainland China, Chinese residents of Hong Kong faced a quandary. Identification with the British, their Chinese culture on the mainland, or the establishment of the nationalist government in Taiwan, was a decision facing the citizens of Hong Kong. By the early 1960s, it was evident to Yueh Feng, a director at Hong Kong’s Shaw Brothers Studios, that another retelling of the Mulan legend was called for. He chose the medium of opera, presented in a film rather than onstage. The film presents Mulan not as a heroine who rises to individual distinction, but as part of a team in which all succeed.
Unity, rather than the glorification of war (as in the 1939 film) is the overlying theme of the opera, though it follows the basis of the Mulan legend more or less faithfully. Yueh Feng cast Ivy Li Po, a celebrated star of Huangmei Opera films, in the role of Mulan. She was awarded Best Actress at the Asian Film Awards in 1964 for her performance in the film. Lady General Hua Mulan aimed to promote the idea that the Chinese citizens of Hong Kong were one with their fellows in China and elsewhere, another use of the Mulan legend to promote political and ethnic viewpoints, rather than simply presenting the tale of Mulan as it originated centuries earlier. Portions of the film are available for viewing on YouTube and other sites as of this writing.
Outside of China, the tale of Mulan was virtually unknown for more than 15 centuries. Other than those who studied Chinese history, literature, and the arts, few in the western world had ever heard of her story. In 1976, Chinese-American writer Maxine Hong Kingston (born Maxine Ting Ting Hong) published a book titled The Woman Warrior. Part autobiography, part cultural viewpoint, the book relates experiences in the author’s life and compares them with Chinese folk tales and traditions. As a first-generation daughter of Chinese immigrants, the author heard the tales from her parents while growing up. One such tale, heard from her mother, was that of Fa Mu Lan.
The book has drawn criticism and praise since it was issued, with some critics decrying it for stereotyping Chinese culture and pandering to its American audience. Others accused it of fictionalizing Chinese history. The author published a defense of her work in an essay in 1982. The book also had many fans, was selected as one of the best non-fiction books of the decade (TIME Magazine), and sold well. Still, despite the presence of the Mulan story, which gave the heroine yet another surname, it did not generate widespread knowledge of the tale in the Western world. Mulan remained a largely unknown tale of Chinese folklore and legend.
Some fans of the Mulan legend attribute The Warrior Woman as the source which inspired Disney to create the animated film Mulan. The belief stems from the fact the book shares the surname Fa with the movie. In the animated version of the legend, Mulan is Han Chinese, the enemies are Huns. Defenders of the Disney version often claim Huns are another accepted term for the Xiongnu, though most scholars dispute it. The Xiongnu center of power was in the area now mostly occupied by Mongolia, while the Huns of the time upon which the legend of Mulan was built were to the west, along the Volga River. While the producers of Mulan practiced considerable artistic license, they did include some of the more frequently reported aspects of the legend. Among them was Mulan’s refusal of a prominent position as an award for her service.
It was Disney’s animated film which made Mulan popular in the Western world. It spawned, among other things, an animated sequel, Mulan II (direct to video and poorly received), television programs, plays, children’s books, toys, and more. Disney followed on the success with a live-action film of the same title in 2020. Along with creating the awareness of the Mulan legend in the west, it generated debate over the historicity of the character, which continues in the 21st century. The debate involves scholars, historians, archaeologists, linguists, and simple fans of the movie and subsequent entertainments based on the legend. Arguments for Mulan’s historical reality are offered on both sides, often using the same sources to present their position.
Those who argue for the truth at the basis of the Mulan legend frequently cite her appearances in the documents of the succeeding dynasties of Chinese history and development. Yet none of the records regarded as official histories include mention of her by name. She appears in songs and ballads, poetry and novels, plays and songs. She does not appear in military histories, official records, including tax and census records, or any other official documents. If she attained godlike status, as one memorial suggests, it was not among the Han with whom she is most closely associated today. According to the oldest reference to Mulan, the Ballad of Mulan, she would have been of the Tuoba people.
Archaeological excavations have revealed numerous graves of women warriors in China and Mongolia, in some cases buried with their weapons. Women warriors in China also preceded the Ballad of Mulan. Fu Hao led troops during the Shang Dynasty, circa 1200 BCE, with records of her story left on oracle bones, the oldest method of written records in Ancient China. Over 250 such oracle bones record her story and other details of her life. Yet nothing similar records the story of Mulan. Her history is one of the romantic arts, rather than military. Many other female military leaders are well documented in Chinese history, including Qin Liangyu, who attained the highest military rank available during the Ming Dynasty. But the official records are blank regarding the legend of Mulan.
Mulan is often interpreted in English as magnolia, which is at best an imprecise reference. Her most often used surname in the West is Hua, interpreted as flower. Magnolia blossoms have long cultural significance in China, making her name a symbolic one. Her surname is reported differently in different eras, in the Ming Dynasty she was referred to as Zhu, while in the Qing Dynasty it was Wei. Other sources use Fa, the name she was given in the Disney animated film. The confusion over the family name leads some to speculate that the character of Mulan was an amalgam of several women warriors, with the story embellished for dramatic or political purposes.
This theory is supported by Mulan’s history of reappearing in times of crisis throughout Chinese history. Her story is taught in Chinese schools, as an example of self-sacrifice for the benefit of the people and the state. In China, she is considered to be legendary, though with some basis in fact. Despite the many contradictions built within her legend notwithstanding, she is honored throughout China and around the world. In 1991 a crater on the planet Venus was named Hua Mulan in her honor. The 1998 Disney animated film was translated into more than 30 languages and was a global success, though it was less popular in China, where the public found it deviated too much from the legend of the heroine. After sixteen centuries, the question of Mulan’s historicity is largely irrelevant.
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