The Blockade Runners of the American Civil War
The Blockade Runners of the American Civil War

The Blockade Runners of the American Civil War

Larry Holzwarth - January 28, 2020

The Blockade Runners of the American Civil War
Ruins of Richmond, Virginia after it was abandoned by Lee’s army in the spring, 1865. Wikimedia

25. The blockade runners prolonged the war and its carnage

The south lacked the basic materials to make war against the United States, as well as the ability to manufacture them in 1861. Before hostilities began ships arrived to supply them, and they continued to supply the Confederate states up to the final days of the war. Some blockade runners were motivated simply by profit. Others had more patriotic motivations, at least on the Southern side. The American National Archives contains vast files of the papers kept by the companies created to trade between Great Britain and the Confederate States of America, and the ships involved in suppressing them. The records document more than 3,000 attempts to run the blockade, and a success rate of nearly 80%.

Without the efforts of the blockade runners, the war would have been considerably shorter. The South simply did not produce the materials to support its armies in the field. The story of the blockade runners is a little studied aspect of the American Civil War and the British involvement in it, though the British government never officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent nation. Some men made large fortunes selling the materials of war during a conflict in which hundreds of thousands died. It’s a story worth knowing.


Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“Civil War Cat and Mouse Game”. Rebecca Livingston, Prologue Magazine. Fall, 1999

“The Narrative of a Blockade Runner”. John Wilkinson. 1877

“Tales from the Blockade”. Richard Frajola. 2011. Online

“Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running during the Civil War”. Stephen R. Wise. 1989

“Railroads in the Confederacy”. Robert C. Black III, Civil War History. American Battlefield. 1961. Online

“The Bahamas and Blockade Running During the American Civil War”. Thelma P. Peters. 1939

“Masters of the Shoals: Tales of the Cape Fear Pilots Who Ran the Union Blockade”. Jim McNeil. 2003

“The Cruise of the Alabama and the Sumter”. Raphael Semmes. 1864

“Memoirs of service afloat during the war between the States”. Raphael Semmes. 1869

“British Blockade Runners in the American Civil War”. Joseph McKenna. 2019

“The Introduction of the Ironclad Warship”. James Phinney Baxter. 1968

“Through the Blockade: The Profitability and Extent of Cotton Smuggling, 1861-1865. Stanley Lebergott, Journal of Economic History. December, 1981. Online

“Last Rays of Departing Hope: The Wilmington Campaign”. Chris E. Fonvielle Jr. 1997

“Union in Peril: The Crisis Over British Intervention in the Civil War”. Howard Jones. 1992

“Gray Phantoms of the Cape Fear: Running the Civil War Blockade”. Dawson Carr. 1998

“Clyde Built: Blockade Runners, Cruisers, and Armored Rams of the American Civil War”. Eric J. Graham. 2006