22. The Americans concentrated in Fort Ticonderoga
The Americans destroyed most of the fortifications at Crown Point, removed the munitions and guns, and withdrew to Ticonderoga. Carleton occupied the site of Crown Point in early October, and began probing the American defenses. He also released most of the prisoners he had taken during the campaign that summer. Carleton was forced to consider the difficulties of his position. His supply lines were long, and in many places exposed to raids by American parties, including on Lake Champlain. Ticonderoga was a strong defensive position. In the third week of October, the snow began. He decided to withdraw to winter quarters at St. Johns and Montreal.
Throughout the summer and fall, Arnold’s long fighting retreat in command of the rear guard of the defeated American army bought time to strengthen the defenses at Ticonderoga. Without his exertions, the British under Carleton and Burgoyne would likely have occupied Albany by the fall of 1776. The following year they attempted to do just that, taking Ticonderoga and driving down the Hudson Valley. They were stopped at Bemis Heights by troops ostensibly commanded by Horatio Gates, but largely led in battle by Benedict Arnold. During the battle Arnold severely injured his leg when one of several horses shot out from under him that day fell on it. It was the same leg wounded in Quebec.
23. The British held Canada for the rest of the war
When John Burgoyne invaded New York and western New England the following year, Carleton remained in command in Canada. The British war effort in the American colonies was largely supported by the port at Halifax, and Quebec. Following Burgoyne’s defeat and surrender at Saratoga, Congress again considered an invasion of Canada, and went so far as to commission the Marquis de Lafayette to command it. Lafayette, after consultation with Washington, addressed Congress on the plan, recommending against its implementation. At the peace talks in Paris, the American commissioners, including Franklin, attempted to gain Quebec through negotiation. That too failed.
After Burgoyne’s surrender, the war on the border between the United States and Canada became one of skirmishes between militias and troops of both sides and the Indian tribes allied with them. Canadians who had lost their property to the British served in the Continental Army, in many cases through the end of the war. After the war, with Canada remaining in British hands, many of them were given grants of land in the new United States. New York established tracts for the reception of Canadian exiles from Quebec and Nova Scotia. Many others went to the newly opened lands along the Ohio River.
On New Year’s Day, 1776, British troops in Quebec found the frozen body of Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, nearly buried in the snow. It was given a funeral by the priests of Quebec, and buried there. In 1818, it was disinterred and sent to New York, for burial with military honors. Henry Dearborn was paroled by the British and exchanged, returning to the American service in time to see action during the Saratoga campaign, and later served with General John Sullivan during the punitive campaigns against the Iroquois and the Six Nations. During the Jefferson Presidency, he served as Secretary of War.
Daniel Morgan was one of the last men to surrender during the ill-fated attack on Quebec, and he was treated harshly by his captors. The British considered the tactics used by the riflemen he commanded (especially the targeting of officers) to be conducted outside the rules of civilized warfare. He and his men received punitive treatment by the British, and Morgan developed a resentment toward his enemy which he never fully overcame. Morgan was exchanged in 1777, and rejoined Washington’s army, forming a new Virginia riflemen regiment to replace the one lost at Quebec. He too fought in the Saratoga Campaign, including alongside Henry Dearborn at the Battle of Freeman’s Farm.
25. Sir Guy Carleton commanded in Canada through the end of the war
Carleton remained in command in Canada, and in 1782 assumed command of all British troops in North America. He directed the withdrawal of the British from New York City in 1783, which included Loyalists and escaping slaves. They were transported from New York to Halifax as the Continental Army entered New York. Carleton enforced the British position that all slaves and former slaves in British territory were free, which led to Canada becoming a goal for the Underground Railroad in the United States. Many of the former slaves were later transported to Sierra Leone on British ships.
In 1796 Carleton left Canada for the final time, returning to Great Britain and semi-retirement. Carleton, who also bore the title Lord Dorchester, is honored by that name as well as his surname in multiple places in Canada, including Ottawa’s Carleton University, and Dorchester Square in Montreal. In the United States, Benedict Arnold’s name is synonymous with treachery and treason.
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