17. Congress sent a commission to Montreal after Arnold arrived
In April, 1776, three members of the Continental Congress arrived in Montreal, hoping to undo the damage from Wooster’s administration of the city. One of the members was Benjamin Franklin. Another was the Catholic Charles Carroll of Maryland. They learned that Wooster had run roughshod over the citizens of Montreal, imposing taxes on churches and closing several. The commission was supported by John Carroll, a Catholic priest (and founder of Georgetown University), who attempted to persuade his fellow priests to support the American cause, but the damage done by Wooster had been too severe, and there was little love remaining for the Americans.
The commission had Wooster, then commanding at Quebec, replaced with General John Thomas and returned to Philadelphia, having failed in their mission. Thomas arrived at the American lines before Quebec in late April. He adjudged the American position untenable when British reinforcements arrived during the first week of May. Carleton used his larger force to march out of the city and confront the Americans in May, while the latter was already in the early stages of a planned withdrawal to Montreal. From there, Benedict Arnold organized the rear-guard activities as the remnants of the American army withdrew, back the same way the troops under Montgomery had used the preceding year.
18. Carleton punished the French-Canadians who had aided the Americans
The American retreat was kept from being a rout only by the exertions of Arnold in covering the withdrawal. After departing Montreal, the army fell back through St. Johns to Ile aux Noix on the Richelieu River. The American Army was by then ravaged by smallpox; hundreds died of the disease during the retreat, including General John Thomas. By June 1, more than 9,000 British troops and Hessian mercenaries had landed at Quebec, under the command of General John Burgoyne. Many of them were housed in the homes of the Canadians who had given aid to the Americans.
Carleton punished the French-Canadians in a variety of ways for the crime of aiding the Americans. He seized property, imprisoned some, and used others as forced labor. He also punished men of military age for failing to answer his calls for the militia during the American offensive the preceding year. As the British counteroffensive began in the summer of 1776, French-Canadians were used to build infrastructure for the army. The retreating Americans destroyed bridges, docks, and fortifications as they withdrew to the south; the British rebuilt them as they pursued. The Americans also destroyed young crops in the fields, to deny them to their enemy that autumn.
After resting for several days at Ile aux Noix, the remnants of the two expeditions which had invaded Canada the preceding summer withdrew all the way to Fort Ticonderoga, abandoning Canada. Carleton decided to retake the fort, as well as the fortifications of Crown Point. By June, the Americans were within the two fortifications, and Carleton’s vastly superior force was approaching from the north. Once again, Benedict Arnold rose to the occasion. Arnold ordered the creation of a fleet of gunboats on Lake Champlain, to counter the British thrust down the lake. Carleton’s army of 9,000 troops paused at St. Johns until control of the lake could be established.
Arnold built his fleet largely from the boats he had commandeered on the lake and rivers as the Americans withdrew during the summer. The absence of boats made the British halt their advance while they built a fleet of their own. The rest of the summer was spent as the two sides readied for a naval action on the lake. Officers of the Royal Navy were dispatched from the fleet at Quebec to direct the British effort. Four of the officers were later elevated to the rank of Admiral in the British Navy, including Edward Pellew (Lord Exmouth) and James Dacres. Opposing them was a fleet led by General Arnold, with little naval experience.
20. The British fleet was larger and more powerful than their American opponent
Carleton had ordered the acquisition of ships which were built in Europe, disassembled and carried to the Americas in transports, and reassembled by experience shipwrights in Canada. Through this foresight, he assembled a fleet of 25 ships and gunboats, armed with a total of more than 80 guns, and manned by experienced officers and sailors of the Royal Navy. To stop the British Arnold assembled 15 ships and gunboats, with a total of 74 guns. The British also disassembled HMS Inflexible at Quebec, transported it to St. Johns, and reassembled it for service on Lake Champlain. The vessel alone mounted 18 guns, vastly more than any of Arnold’s fleet.
While the fleet was being constructed at Skenesborough, Arnold patrolled the lake aboard a schooner, Royal Savage. Arnold, though serving in the army, had been a merchant and sailor before the war. Using his experience and his knowledge of the lake, Arnold carefully scouted for a site to give battle where the more powerful British fleet would find its movements restricted, lessening its advantage over the Americans.
21. The Battle of Valcour Island ended the Invasion of Canada
The site selected by Arnold was a narrow inlet between Lake Champlain’s western shore and Valcour Island. The site was controversial among the commanders of his various vessels, many of whom wanted to meet the British in the lake’s open waters. Arnold’s site, they argued, left no room for retreat. Arnold countered that retreat was not an option, and that the purpose of the fleet was to delay the British assault on the forts at the south end of the lake, not survival to fight again another day. Arnold anchored the fleet in the inlet on the night of October 9. On October 11 the British fleet sailed past his position, and Arnold sent out two ships to draw their attention.
The Battle of Valcour Island was fought throughout the afternoon of October 11, and the American fleet was all but destroyed. Arnold escaped to the south that night, taking the remains of the American fleet with him, eluding the British. Arnold eventually reached sheltered waters on the western shore of the lake, where the remains of the fleet were burned, and the 200 or so survivors escaped overland to Crown Point. Several other American vessels escaped directly to Crown Point; Arnold found them there when he arrived at the fort. He then decided that he had not enough troops to defend both forts, and ordered Crown Point destroyed, to deny its use by the British.
22. The Americans concentrated in Fort Ticonderoga
The Americans destroyed most of the fortifications at Crown Point, removed the munitions and guns, and withdrew to Ticonderoga. Carleton occupied the site of Crown Point in early October, and began probing the American defenses. He also released most of the prisoners he had taken during the campaign that summer. Carleton was forced to consider the difficulties of his position. His supply lines were long, and in many places exposed to raids by American parties, including on Lake Champlain. Ticonderoga was a strong defensive position. In the third week of October, the snow began. He decided to withdraw to winter quarters at St. Johns and Montreal.
Throughout the summer and fall, Arnold’s long fighting retreat in command of the rear guard of the defeated American army bought time to strengthen the defenses at Ticonderoga. Without his exertions, the British under Carleton and Burgoyne would likely have occupied Albany by the fall of 1776. The following year they attempted to do just that, taking Ticonderoga and driving down the Hudson Valley. They were stopped at Bemis Heights by troops ostensibly commanded by Horatio Gates, but largely led in battle by Benedict Arnold. During the battle Arnold severely injured his leg when one of several horses shot out from under him that day fell on it. It was the same leg wounded in Quebec.
23. The British held Canada for the rest of the war
When John Burgoyne invaded New York and western New England the following year, Carleton remained in command in Canada. The British war effort in the American colonies was largely supported by the port at Halifax, and Quebec. Following Burgoyne’s defeat and surrender at Saratoga, Congress again considered an invasion of Canada, and went so far as to commission the Marquis de Lafayette to command it. Lafayette, after consultation with Washington, addressed Congress on the plan, recommending against its implementation. At the peace talks in Paris, the American commissioners, including Franklin, attempted to gain Quebec through negotiation. That too failed.
After Burgoyne’s surrender, the war on the border between the United States and Canada became one of skirmishes between militias and troops of both sides and the Indian tribes allied with them. Canadians who had lost their property to the British served in the Continental Army, in many cases through the end of the war. After the war, with Canada remaining in British hands, many of them were given grants of land in the new United States. New York established tracts for the reception of Canadian exiles from Quebec and Nova Scotia. Many others went to the newly opened lands along the Ohio River.
On New Year’s Day, 1776, British troops in Quebec found the frozen body of Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, nearly buried in the snow. It was given a funeral by the priests of Quebec, and buried there. In 1818, it was disinterred and sent to New York, for burial with military honors. Henry Dearborn was paroled by the British and exchanged, returning to the American service in time to see action during the Saratoga campaign, and later served with General John Sullivan during the punitive campaigns against the Iroquois and the Six Nations. During the Jefferson Presidency, he served as Secretary of War.
Daniel Morgan was one of the last men to surrender during the ill-fated attack on Quebec, and he was treated harshly by his captors. The British considered the tactics used by the riflemen he commanded (especially the targeting of officers) to be conducted outside the rules of civilized warfare. He and his men received punitive treatment by the British, and Morgan developed a resentment toward his enemy which he never fully overcame. Morgan was exchanged in 1777, and rejoined Washington’s army, forming a new Virginia riflemen regiment to replace the one lost at Quebec. He too fought in the Saratoga Campaign, including alongside Henry Dearborn at the Battle of Freeman’s Farm.
25. Sir Guy Carleton commanded in Canada through the end of the war
Carleton remained in command in Canada, and in 1782 assumed command of all British troops in North America. He directed the withdrawal of the British from New York City in 1783, which included Loyalists and escaping slaves. They were transported from New York to Halifax as the Continental Army entered New York. Carleton enforced the British position that all slaves and former slaves in British territory were free, which led to Canada becoming a goal for the Underground Railroad in the United States. Many of the former slaves were later transported to Sierra Leone on British ships.
In 1796 Carleton left Canada for the final time, returning to Great Britain and semi-retirement. Carleton, who also bore the title Lord Dorchester, is honored by that name as well as his surname in multiple places in Canada, including Ottawa’s Carleton University, and Dorchester Square in Montreal. In the United States, Benedict Arnold’s name is synonymous with treachery and treason.
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