In the spring of 1942 intelligence data developed by codebreakers allowed the US Navy to ambush the Imperial Japanese Navy when the latter attempted to invade Midway Atoll in the central Pacific. The Americans, in one of the most critical naval battles of history, destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers, while suffering the loss of one, USS Yorktown. Yorktown had been heavily damaged during the Battle of Coral Sea the preceding month, and fought at Midway in a patched together condition. Aircraft from Yorktown dealt the fatal blows to the Japanese carrier Soryu. Yorktown was bombed severely, and for a time was dead in the water before damage control teams made the ship operational again.
Bombed yet again, with resulting loss of power, the ship was abandoned yet refused to sink. As it became apparent that the United States had won a major victory, a volunteer crew went back to Yorktown to try to control the fires and flooding, and prepare it to be towed into port for repairs. On June 6, Yorktown was under tow when a Japanese submarine attacked the escorting destroyer Hammann, sinking it in minutes, and two torpedoes hit Yorktown. The ship rapidly listed to port, the towline was cast off, and the carrier was again abandoned. Early on the morning of June 7 the ship finally rolled onto its side and sank, in waters well over 15,000 feet deep.
19. The Yorktown search was the most difficult of all for Ballard’s research team
The waters which swallowed USS Yorktown are 16,650 feet deep, a mile deeper than those in which the wreck of Titanic was found in 1985. To find the wreck, an expedition was formed by the National Geographic Society, led by Dr. Ballard and supported by the US Navy, who assigned personnel to the team. The Navy’s participation provided valuable real-world training for operators of its underwater search vehicles and submarine rescue teams. Ballard used techniques developed during the Scorpion expedition and honed in other searches during the difficult search for the sunken aircraft carrier.
During the search for Titanic and even more so for the Bismarck wreckage, the technicians and researchers discovered that as a ship strikes the bottom it does not do so gently. Instead it slams into the bottom, its velocity dependent on the depth it descended, and the violence displaces large amounts of mud and bottom debris. The mud is often displaced in a circular pattern around the wreck, with clots the size of huge boulders. Once a clot is sighted, additional clots are sought until the arc of the circle can be computed, allowing the search to then focus on the center, where the wreck is found.
20. Yorktown was found to be almost entirely intact, and in good condition
When the wreck of the World War II aircraft carrier USS Yorktown was discovered, it was found to be almost entirely clear of marine life and rust. The ship sits upright on the sea bottom, three miles beneath the surface. The entire flight deck was traversed, its surface unobscured. Stainless steel fittings and panels retained their shine, as if waiting for inspection after 56 years. The US Navy ship supporting the operation, USNS Laney Chouest, was designed and fitted out for the support of US Navy deep submergence operations. Aboard was a veteran of the Battle of Midway, who had been one of the men who returned to the abandoned Yorktown in an attempt to save the ship in 1942.
He was able to positively identify the ship as the lost aircraft carrier, including identifying the catwalk from which he had abandoned the ship a second time after it was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. The successful search for the lost Yorktown, like the other searches for lost ships that preceded it, made headlines. But it was a boon for the US Navy in other ways besides publicity. The Navy’s role in the search was known, but downplayed, as it was able to exercise its personnel and equipment in a situation near the technological limits due to the depth at which rests the sunken ship in the vast reaches of the Pacific.
In the spring of 2002 Robert Ballard led an expedition to locate the wreck of PT 109, the motor torpedo boat commanded by Lieutenant Junior Grade John F. Kennedy in 1943. On the night of August 1, 1943, the boat, in company with others from its squadron, was operating in the Solomon Islands in an area called the Blackett Strait. In a confused action with Japanese destroyers, during which the American torpedoes exhibited failures with their detonators, PT 109 was separated from the rest of the squadron. The boat was idling to prevent it creating a wake (visible to patrolling aircraft) when a Japanese destroyer bore down on it.
With less than ten seconds to react, bring the boat underway, and evade, the boat was doomed. The destroyer rammed the wooden vessel, slicing it in half, and setting it afire. After remaining with the drifting forward section for a time, Kennedy led the survivors on a swim to Plum Island, 3.5 miles away, with Kennedy towing one badly injured man despite being injured himself. Kennedy’s actions in the aftermath of the sinking of his boat made him a war hero. The boat itself, or rather what remained of it, drifted out of sight as the men swam away, and was not seen again by any of them.
22. Ballard’s expedition found the wreckage of PT 109 in 2002
The search for the remains of PT 109 presented difficulties and challenges far different from those of Titanic, Yorktown, and Bismarck. The search area was much smaller than those in the open sea. The depth of the waters to be searched was also much shallower. But the amount of wreckage and debris in the area was large, due to the many sea and air battles which had raged in the area during the war. There was also the problem of not knowing where the vessel had sunk, since it was last known to be adrift, without power, subject to the whims of nature. It was also in two pieces, with the stern section having sunk an unknown distance from the bow, and also in an uncertain location.
Data provided by the Navy allowed Ballard to focus his search in an area of roughly five by seven miles. The shifting sea floor obscured many targets while others found and examined were revealed to be other wreckage from the war. On May 22, 2002, the expedition discovered a torpedo tube and a torpedo, photos of which were sent to the US Navy for examination. After confirming that the tube and a cranking mechanism used to angle it outboard for firing were from a World War II PT boat the Navy examined its historical records and learned that no other such boats had been lost in the area. The Navy confirmed that the remains were the wreckage of PT 109’s forward section, and the site was treated as a war grave. The remains of the stern section have yet to be found.
23. US Navy operations in conjunction with undersea searches benefits both
The classified participation of the US Navy covered by the search for Titanic brought benefits to the science of undersea exploration and to the Navy’s understanding of how two of its submarines were lost. Items were recovered from the site of USS Thresher which confirmed much of what the Navy already suspected regarding the tragedy which cost 129 men their lives. Whether anything was recovered from the wreck of Scorpion remains classified, but the data obtained in the case of both sunken submarines ensured that they are having no adverse effect on the environment, their nuclear reactors and weapons remaining safe.
Both search techniques and capabilities were improved, for both the Navy and the ocean research community. The techniques developed have been used, and will continue to be used and improved, in the search for aircraft lost at sea, both commercial and military. They have helped the Navy locate lost weapons, map the sea bottom, and locate undersea cables and hazards. The deep submergence photography which sends back ghostly images of long-lost ships has other military applications used by the Navy to enhance its capabilities. The search for Titanic was not the first seemingly civilian operation which was actually a secret military exercise, nor will it be the last, as long as there is discernible mutual benefit.
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