10 of the Most Heinous Forgotten War Crimes of the American Civil War
10 of the Most Heinous Forgotten War Crimes of the American Civil War

10 of the Most Heinous Forgotten War Crimes of the American Civil War

Larry Holzwarth - December 7, 2017

10 of the Most Heinous Forgotten War Crimes of the American Civil War
The murder of 13 Union sympathizers from Shelton Laurel took place near here. Wikimedia

Shelton Laurel, North Carolina 1863

In January 1863 armed Unionists raided the salt stores in Marshal, North Carolina, an act which precipitated an armed response to the Shelton Laurel valley to arrest the culprits. After North Carolina troops arrived there they kidnapped and tortured several women in an attempt to uncover their husband’s whereabouts.

Homes and barns were burned, women hanged and whipped, and children tortured. The troops eventually rounded up 15 men and boys (some accounts say 16) and began marching them towards the nearest Confederate regular troops in Eastern Tennessee.

At least two and possibly three of the captives escaped in the course of the march, enraging the commander of the troops, Lt. Colonel James Keith. Keith ordered the remaining prisoners to be taken into the nearby woods, off the road. The prisoner’s ages ranged from 13 to over 60.

At Keith’s order, the captives were shot by the North Carolina troops, the first volley killing four men instantly, while another that was hit required a second round to kill him. As the troops reloaded their weapons, the remaining captives were forced to kneel and wait, five more were killed in the second volley. Eventually, 13 were executed.

Keith was charged with their murders in a civilian court following the war, but after waiting two years in jail to be sentenced he escaped. Days later it was revealed that the state Supreme Court would have set him free. Keith was never brought to justice for the murder of the 13 Unionists. He fled to Arkansas and vanished.

10 of the Most Heinous Forgotten War Crimes of the American Civil War
Confederate Major General George Pickett in a photo taken early in the war.

Hanging of Union Prisoners, North Carolina, 1864

Confederate General George E. Pickett is remembered primarily for the attack launched by his division on the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, known to history as Pickett’s Charge. In February of 1864, Pickett was in command of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, under orders from Robert E. Lee to attack and capture New Bern, North Carolina. His attack failed, but he did capture a large number of Union troops as prisoners.

Among them were members of a Union regiment from North Carolina, some of whom Pickett determined to be deserters from the Army of Northern Virginia. Pickett ordered the prisoners to be hanged. It was customary for captured deserters to be shot, but Pickett was not dissuaded.

While some of the captured Union troops were undoubtedly deserters it is likely that some if not most were not. Other regiments of Union troops had been raised in North Carolina during the war. There is also no record of any of the troops being court-martialed for desertion. The hangings took place over the course of several days.

The hangings were decried as murder by northern newspapers and by Union officers, who called for a Court of Inquiry. Pickett fled to Canada in the aftermath of Lee’s surrender and was living in Montreal under an assumed name when it appeared he would be charged with multiple counts of murder.

In the end, Pickett’s old friend, Ulysses S. Grant, interceded by petitioning President Andrew Johnson, arguing that the terms of Lee’s surrender of his army – which included Pickett – did not mention the possibility of trials for war crimes. Johnson agreed, and the general amnesty issued on Christmas Day of 1868 removed the threat of charges being brought against the former Confederate general.

 

Sources For Further Reading:

History Collection – 40 Disturbing Photographs from the Battlefields of the Civil War

History Collection – The Daily Lives of Confederate Soldiers vs. Union Soldiers During the Civil War

History Collection – Fascinating Civil War Facts that Won’t be in the History Books

History Collection – 9 Bloodiest Battles of the Civil War by The Numbers

History Collection – 5 Pivotal Battles that Changed the Course of the Civil War

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