This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy
This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy

This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy

Larry Holzwarth - March 31, 2022

This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy
Rudder of the sunken USS Thresher, photographed in over 8,400 feet of water. US Navy

16. The loss of Thresher vindicated many of Rickover’s views

In April, 1963, during a controlled test dive, USS Thresher was lost with all hands and several civilian contractors aboard. Though the exact cause of the vessel’s sinking remains unknown, it was widely believed to have begun when a brazed pipe fitting failed, causing water to spray on electrical equipment, shorting it out, and beginning an accident chain which doomed the ship. The hull imploded after it passed crush depth. Subsequent surveys of the wreck site, in the 1960s and again in the 1980s, revealed no leakage of radiation from the submarine’s reactor plant. Rickover’s exacting standards, which applied only to the reactor and its immediate support equipment, maintained reactor safety even in the catastrophic loss of the ship. In 1968 the United States lost a second nuclear submarine, USS Scorpion. Surveys of its wreckage likewise revealed no radiation leakage, even after two decades.

The loss of Thresher vindicated Rickover’s long-held views that the standards he applied to the reactor plant should be adopted throughout the submarine which is propelled. Contractors balked, as the more rigid standards ate into profits, caused cost overruns, and delayed delivery dates. Retrofitting existing submarines took longer, and operational commanders found they had not enough ships to meet commitments. Rickover continued to fight for more rigid standards, earning more enemies, but for the most part, getting his way. He stressed reactor safety, crew safety, and equipment safety, in that order, as paramount over all other considerations. He made equipment standards higher, rather than allowing them to ease, despite the insistence of ship builders and contractors the standards were unreasonably restrictive. Rickover’s strict adherence to standards and budgets earned him the support of Congress and made it difficult for his superiors to retire him.

This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy
Admiral Rickover in civilian clothes inspecting USS Nautilus in 1954. US Navy

17. Rickover personally directed all aspects of the Navy’s nuclear program

Rickover did not believe in delegating responsibility. In his mind, he was personally responsible, the ultimate authority, for all aspects of the nuclear Navy. His schedule reflected that belief. On any given day he could be inspecting a reactor under construction, or an operating prototype, or reviewing a budget, or visiting a contractor’s facilities, or testifying before Congress, or meeting with the President. He inspected ships and submarines, quizzed the crew from the Captain to the lowliest enlisted man in the engineering spaces. His conversations with crew and his interviews with applicants to the program led him to believe the American education system was failing in its task. He was particularly critical of Annapolis, which he believed focused too much on military rigidity and tradition, and not enough on teaching students to think for themselves.

As early as 1959 Rickover published a collection of essays which discussed the failures of the American education system, writing, “It is my considered opinion that there is no problem that faces the Congress or the country that is as important”. In 1962 the Admiral, evidently finding too much spare time on his hands, undertook a comparison study of American education to that of Switzerland. America’s system did not fare well in his estimation. He published his findings in a 1962 book, Swiss Schools and Ours: Why Theirs Are Better, in which he argued for higher standards, especially in mathematics and sciences, and a longer school year and day for American schools. To Rickover, lax education standards in the United States presented a national security problem. His arguments, presented over three decades, largely fell on deaf ears.

This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy
Rickover meeting with President Kennedy at the White House, February 11, 1963. JFK Presidential Library

18. Rickover became known throughout the Navy as “the kindly old gentleman”

In the 1970s Rickover’s power throughout the Navy and in Congress peaked. Stories of his interviews of applicants for nuclear power training were told in shipyards, in contractor’s hallways, on board his ships, and, after the inauguration of Jimmy Carter, in the White House. As with all sea stories, many were true, many more were embellished in the retelling. One such story told of Rickover telling a midshipman during his interview to call his fiancé and cancel their planned wedding. He was to tell her that he needed to concentrate on his studies and complete training before he considered marriage. The midshipman complied, using the Admiral’s phone. After completing the call, the young man was informed he would not be accepted in the program. Rickover cited the lack of commitment to his fiancé as a character flaw.

Such stories led to Rickover being called, sarcastically and behind his back, the “kindly old gentleman” among those participating in the nuclear power program. It was one of the milder terms used to describe the Admiral. By then well past retirement age, Rickover managed to continue to hang on. By the time of the Carter Administration, his strict management of the program led to repeated clashes with defense contractors, in particular with Electric Boat. The Admiral often criticized the submarine builder for shoddy work, cost overruns, incomplete tests and evaluations, and openly fraudulent practices. With Jimmy Carter, a former protégé, in office there was little that could be done. Electric Boat and other defense contractors began to pressure Congress to have Rickover retired. There was growing obsession with what his opponents called “the Rickover Problem”.

This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy
Rickover with President Ford in the Oval Office, January, 1977. National Archives

19. A cost overrun scandal with Electric Boat helped trigger Rickover’s downfall

In 1981, Rickover testified before a Congressional committee that the only two shipyards building submarines for the US Navy were defrauding the taxpayers. Rickover accused Electric Boat and Newport News Naval Shipyard of submitting fraudulently low bids to build submarines, after which they submitted claims for reimbursement for cost overruns. According to the Admiral, “Both yards have a battery of lawyers whose sole job is to file claims”. Rickover told Congress that though overruns occurred at both yards, Electric Boat, a division of General Dynamics, was considerably and measurably worse. He testified, “Apparently, Electric Boat’s bidding tactics were aimed at trying to force Newport News out of business”. Rickover asked Congress for legislation to reform the bidding and awards process. Electric Boat called foul and claimed the cost overruns occurred as a result of demands for greater testing and evaluation of their work, which inaccurately labeled some as substandard.

As the controversy flared and Rickover demanded the Navy not pay for fraudulent overruns, he continued his practice to ride each new submarine on its initial sea trials. He was aboard USS La Jolla for its trials in the summer of 1981. He oversaw a maneuver known as a “crashback”, a test of the ship’s braking ability when the engines are thrown into reverse. The ship temporarily lost control, and contractor personnel aboard for the test quickly blamed Rickover. There were no injuries and little damage. Following the incident came claims that over the years Rickover had accepted gifts from Electric Boat and other contractors, which in later interviews Rickover freely admitted. He gave many of them away to members of Congress. The combination of the near-accident, the gifts scandal, and his opposition to the Navy paying for fraudulent overruns finally gave the Navy the opportunity to retire him.

This Cantankerous Engineer Built the United States Nuclear Navy
President Reagan’s Secretary of the Navy John Lehman forcibly retired Rickover in 1982. National Archives

20. Rickover was forcibly retired in January, 1982

On January 31, 1982, Rickover was retired from the Navy, after 63 years of continual service, spanning the administrations of 13 Presidents, from Woodrow Wilson to Ronald Reagan. According to Rickover, he learned of the fact from his wife, who heard a radio report on the subject. Rickover refused an offer to serve as a special adviser on nuclear matters in typically salty terms when Reagan told him of it in the Oval Office. Shortly after removing Rickover the Navy closed its investigation into Electric Boat and General Dynamics and paid most of the overrun claims, $634 million. In February 1983, a private retirement party was held in Rickover’s honor, with former Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Carter all in attendance. President Reagan did not attend. Nor did representatives from Electric Boat, with whom he had often clashed late in his career.

During his career, his Nuclear Power Program created a record of reliability and safety second to none. The US Navy, with well over 100 reactors built and operated under Rickover’s guidance, has never had an accident or incident which led to radiation leakage. The pressurized water reactor developed for his program, and in large part to his design, currently powers all US Navy nuclear submarines and surface ships. US Navy ships and submarines have steamed almost 200 million miles, underway on nuclear power. Admiral Rickover died in 1986, and after funeral services held at the National Cathedral in Washington was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Two years before his death he attended the commissioning of the USS Hyman G. Rickover, a Los Angeles class attack submarine. One of Rickover’s maxims, regarding good ideas, is displayed at the US Navy Museum. “They must be driven into practice with courageous impatience”.

Where do we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“Hyman G. Rickover”. Biography, Atomic Heritage Foundation. Online

“Recollections of Margaret Lurie”. Margaret Lurie, USS Hyman G. Rickover Commissioning Committee. Online

“Admiral Hyman Rickover”. Interview, Diane Sawyer (transcript) 1984

“Salvage and Repair of USS California”. Article, Naval History and Heritage Command. Online

“Rickover: Controversy and Genius”. Norman Polmar, Thomas B. Allen. 1982

“Nuclear Navy 1946 – 1962”. Richard G. Hewlett, Francis Duncan. Online

“Powering the Navy”. Article, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. Online

“History of USS Nautilus”. Article, Submarine Force Library and Museum. Online

“Hyman George Rickover”. Biography, Online

“Past, Present, and Future”. Nuclear Engineering International. April 30, 2001

“Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Remarks”. Jimmy Carter, Hyman Rickover, American Presidency Project. December 2, 1977. Online

“Why did the US abandon a lead in reactor design?” Cheryl Rofer, Physics Today. August 7, 2015

“Carter extols old Navy boss Rickover”. Article, UPI. July 9, 1986. Online

“This Legendary Admiral Had A Ruthless Approach To Job Interviews”. Gus Lubin, Business Insider. April 13, 2014. Online

“Any Other Name: The Origination of HMS Dreadnought”. Article, Airspace Historian. November 28, 2014 Online

“Public Policy: Rickover’s Attack on Defense Contractors”. Article, TIME Magazine. November 9, 1962

“Atomic Submarine USS Thresher Sinks in the Atlantic, Killing All on Board”. Article, Online

“Doing a Job”. Speech, Admiral Hyman Rickover at Columbia University. Online

“Overrun Silent, Overrun Deep”. Evan Thomas, TIME Magazine. December 24, 1984

“Rickover Linked By House Panel To Gifts From Shipbuilders”. Wayne Biddle, The New York Times. July 19, 1984

“Rickover Is Forced To Retire”. George C. Wilson, The Washington Post. November 14, 1981

“Admiral Hyman Rickover Dead at 86”. Article, Jewish Telegraphic Agency. July 9, 1986