Silent Witnesses: 9 Astounding Revelations About the Bodies Discovered at the Pompeii Volcanic Explosion
Silent Witnesses: 9 Astounding Revelations About the Bodies Discovered at the Pompeii Volcanic Explosion

Silent Witnesses: 9 Astounding Revelations About the Bodies Discovered at the Pompeii Volcanic Explosion

Alexander Meddings - August 14, 2017

Silent Witnesses: 9 Astounding Revelations About the Bodies Discovered at the Pompeii Volcanic Explosion
The so-called “Pompeii Masturbator”.

It’s unlikely this man died doing what he loved

One image that has recently gone viral is that of a male Pompeii victim seemingly spending his last few moments on earth doing what—to put it delicately—he may have loved doing best. Simultaneously holding onto both himself and his loved one, his plaster cast reveals a facial expression of either immense pleasure or intense pain (considering the circumstances of his death, the latter was unfortunately, a given). But what can a closer look at this somewhat manual Pompeian man tell us about how he died?

Of the 1,150 bodies recovered, it’s believed that 394 were killed by falling pumice, described vividly in the contemporary account of Pliny the Younger: “They went out then, having pillows tied upon their heads with napkins; and this was their whole defence against the storm of stones that fell around them.” This man, however, doesn’t fall into this category. For a start, there’s no sign of cranial trauma; the only trauma instead coming from people unwittingly exposed to the image today in public or while at work.

Instead, we can confidently count him among the victims of the pyroclastic flow: a lightening fast current of boiling-hot gas and assorted volcanic matter which exploded from the volcano after a long, intense build-up of pressure (innuendo thoroughly intended). The sheer heat of this, estimated to have been at least 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit, would have made those unfortunate enough to be in its path enter cadaveric shock. And a part of this involves what’s called cadaveric spasm, which involves the involuntary stiffening of one’s muscles.

So, as much as we may like to imagine that this man became frozen in time mid-way through a one-man Roman orgy; fiddling while Rome burned; determinedly finishing what he’d started as day turned to night and the apocalypse seemed to descend around him, in reality, it seems his death was to do with something completely different: an enormous eruption followed by involuntary muscle spasms.

Silent Witnesses: 9 Astounding Revelations About the Bodies Discovered at the Pompeii Volcanic Explosion
Skeletons found in the cellar in Oplontis. Wine Spectator

The bodies paint a picture of everyday life

At the time of the eruption, Pompeii was home to anywhere between 10,000 to 20,000 people. So far we’ve uncovered around 1,500 bodies of the 2,000 estimated to have died in the disaster. But we are still continuing to find them: just a few months back in June 2017, French and Italian archaeologists uncovered the bones of four people, including a teenage girl, in a workshop on the Porto Ercolano. But it’s not just the bodies from within the town itself that can tell us about ancient life. A group of at least 54 fugitives found in a cellar in the nearby town Oplontis also help paint a vivid picture.

What’s fascinating is that their remains were divided into two groups. On one side of the room sat the rich. One man, with teeth as good as anyone’s today and muscles far in excess, has been identified as one of the wealthy on the basis that his bones were stained green. This didn’t come from any thermo-chemical reaction from the volcano; instead, it came from the sheer amount of precious metal he was wearing, which came into contact with the bone once the flesh had decomposed.

In fact, the wealth around them was quite extraordinary: lots of jewelry, gold bangles, worn gold and silver coins and unworn gold coins (indicating they were being used as savings rather than currency in circulation).

Then there are the two twins found in the basement of Oplontis, whose teeth and bones—quite remarkably—show signs of congenital syphilis. If this is the case, as scientists are beginning to think, this completely overturns what has been the consensus for centuries: that it was Columbus’s men returning from the Americas in the 1400s who first brought syphilis to Europe.

Silent Witnesses: 9 Astounding Revelations About the Bodies Discovered at the Pompeii Volcanic Explosion
Plaster cast showing a dog’s final agonizing moments. Pinterest

Pompeii doesn’t just have human bodies

One of the unique things about Pompeii (at least as far as its inhabitants go) is that it shows off a true cross-section of Roman society. There are bodies of infants just as there are bodies of the elderly; there are the remains of the stinking rich, surrounded by jewelry and coins, just as there are those of the poor, who fled Vesuvius without a single possession to whatever their name was.

There are slaves, gladiators and aristocrats. And, as you’d expect from a fully functioning town in the middle of the countryside, there are the remains of animals: specifically a small boar and a dog.

The dog is particularly disturbing. The cast captures it writhing in its last moments of agony as the pyroclastic flow thundered down the volcano, incinerating everything in its path. Strangely, CT scans have revealed it to be a dog without a bone—without any bones in fact. In their attempt to explain this, archaeologists have (rather obviously) suggested that the bones were removed from the cavity prior to the plaster being poured in. Why, however, remains a mystery.

Pompeii’s canine legacy doesn’t end here. One of the main attractions when you visit the site is the cave canem mosaic; a sign at the entrance of the House of the Tragic Poet that, when translated, gives us our first ever example of “Beware of the Dog”. And that’s not all. Visit Pompeii today, and you’ll find packs of strays mulling around the city, lured here by the promise of scraps donated by generous tourists. Unlike the tourists, these are the only living creatures in the vicinity blissfully unaware of the tragic fate of their ancestors.


Sources For Further Reading:

Fiorelli Method: The Last Breath of Pompeii: The Plaster Casts Technique

Slate – Imprisoned in Ash: The Plaster Citizens of Pompeii

Smithsonian Magazine – Well-Preserved Remains of Two Vesuvius Victims Found in Pompeii

The New York Times – He Died at Pompeii, but His Head Wasn’t Crushed by a Block

National Geographic Channel – Horses Found in Pompeii May Have Been Harnessed to Flee Eruption

Live Science – Mount Vesuvius Didn’t Kill Everyone in Pompeii. Where Did the Survivors Go?

Science Magazine – Medieval DNA Suggests Columbus Didn’t Trigger Syphilis Epidemic in Europe

The Conversation – Pompeii: Ancient Remains Are Helping Scientists Learn What Happens to A Body Caught In A Volcanic Eruption

History Collection – 20th Century’s Deadliest Disasters