13. The expansion of empires negated the arguments of Plato and Aristotle
Both Plato and his student Aristotle believed overburdening the state’s resources inevitably led to disaster. The state would be forced to engage in international commerce to survive, creating rivalries. Or it would be forced to engage in war to obtain additional resources (which brought with them an additional population). In either case, continued growth of the population would create additional pressures on resources, and the cycle would continue. The only solution which was compatible with their views on virtue was restricting the size of the population to what existing resources could support.
Alexander’s conquests made large areas of land available for settlement, and Greeks from the city-states found new regions to occupy. The expansion gave more room for the population to expand into, and it did, many abandoning Greece. The lands of the city-states remained concentrated largely in the hands of the rich. Expanding empire replaced the small city-states and ended the argument, for a time, overpopulation control. The Romans later followed a similar model, after first engaging in similar arguments over the population within their lands.
14. The Romans practiced population control in reverse
The Romans had no intention of creating relatively small city-states with balanced populations and resources. The republic and later the empire were from the onset focused on expansion and growth. Conquering new lands required large armies, as did control them while exploiting their resources. The term Lex Iulia, (Julian Laws) referred to laws enacted by any member of the Julian dynasty, but most often are used to refer to a series of laws covering class and marriage enacted by Augustus in 18 and 17 BCE. The laws were intended to both control who married and to whom and encouraged marriage and children.
One of the first of the Augustan Julian Laws, enacted in 18 BCE, made marriage across class boundaries a crime. The law had the unfortunate effect of contributing to the practice of more wealthy Romans keeping concubines. Augustus enacted the law to encourage morality in marriage, and thus achieved in many cases the opposite. Concubines in ancient Rome (both male and female) were recognized by the state, as existing due to the restrictions on marriage based on class status. Most often women of lower classes were kept as concubines, whether the person keeping them was married or not.
15. Roman population control laws defended the sanctity of marriage
In 17 BCE, Augustus enacted a law which defended marriage from adultery. Marriage was seen by Roman leaders as essential to the security of the state due to the children it produced, particularly male children. The law specifically targeted the act of adultery and required both parties involved to be banished. They were banished to separate islands, and if they owned property it was for the most part confiscated. There were some exceptions, in the case of spouses with children residing on the property, or using it for income. Husbands were required by the law to divorce wives convicted of adultery and encouraged to remarry.
Husbands who caught their spouse in the act of adultery were allowed to kill the intruder in most cases, and sometimes allowed to kill the offending spouse as well. The fathers of women who committed adultery were allowed to kill them as well, along with their partners. The laws intended to protect marriage were enforced, and adultery was declared to be a public crime. Wives were encouraged to submit to their husbands, the proper role being procreation. Augustus created a law of three sons, which elevated the social status of men who fathered three (or more) male children.
16. Other Roman population control laws encouraged marriage and children
In 9 AD, two Roman suffect consuls (the highest elected posts of the government at the time) amended the laws passed by Augustus. Although the law was intended to further encourage and protect marriage, neither of the consuls, Marcus Papius Mutilus and Quintus Poppaeus Secundus, were married. The law imposed further restrictions on who could marry whom. For example, Senators and their children were forbidden from marrying persons whose parents had been performers, former slaves, or prostitutes. Performers included gladiators, dancers, musicians, and many others.
Celibacy was not made strictly illegal (past a certain age) but it was strongly discouraged. A celibate could not take possession of inheritance unless he agreed to marry within a specified period of time. Otherwise, the inheritance is passed to the state. Widows (under the age of fifty) would lose what their late husband had left them if they did not remarry within a specified time. Women over fifty and men over sixty were exempt from the law unless they had broken it before attaining those ages. Roman law assumed that a woman was still capable of bearing children up to the age of fifty, and thus should be doing so.
17. Roman law penalized married couples with no children
Married couples who were unable to have children had their presumed disappointment aggravated by punishment under the law. Husbands between the ages of 25 and 60, and their wives from 20 to 50, were expected to reproduce. The penalties for not doing so were financial. Some couples attempted to adopt, thus having children in their household, but the Senate disregarded adoption as merely an attempt to circumvent the intent behind the law. Conversely, families with several children were awarded tax advantages and elevation of status in many cases.
The Augustan laws regarding marriage, and the later amendments to them, were enacted in response to falling birth rates. Roman leaders clearly desired large families, increasing the population as the empire continued to expand. Simply put, all eligible men and women were, under the law, required to marry or face increased taxation, as well as social disapproval. Once married they were to produce children. Violating the sanctity of marriage was a serious crime. Eventually, the Augustan laws faded into disuse, by the time of Constantine, and most were later formally repealed.
18. Prostitution flourished in ancient Rome despite population control laws protecting marriage
Despite the laws which existed promoting marriage and procreation, prostitution by both sexes was legal under Roman law, and its proceeds were subject to taxation. Another law passed by Augustus decreed that women convicted of adultery could be sentenced to forced prostitution. It remained in effect until late in the fourth century. Prostitutes were not citizens, and thus neither could their offspring be citizens. The practice of birth control thrived in Roman society, even as the leaders of the empire strove to have their citizens bear and raise children.
Other women, despite the rewards for bearing children, sought ways to avoid pregnancy. One motivating factor was the high rates of death from post-partum infections, or other complications encountered while giving birth. Contraceptives were developed as they were in Greece, using some of the same methods and developing new ones of their own. The expanse of the Roman Empire brought them herbal contraceptives which had not been available to the Greek city-states, while others were shared by both civilizations. One of them was an herb known as silphium.
19. Silphium was a common contraceptive used by the Romans
Silphium came to Rome from Cyrene, in North Africa. Soranus of Ephesus recommended the use of silphium to induce menstruation. Pennyroyal, as it was in Greece, was used as another contraceptive, especially after supplies of silphium waned. Pennyroyal was highly toxic, causing kidney and liver damage, and if such were observed by Roman doctors none seem to have written of them. The same was true of other herbal contraceptives, nearly all of them had undesirable side effects, though not all were toxic to the point of being life-threatening. Some simply caused indigestion or congestion.
The common weed found throughout the western world known as Daucus Carota to botanists, and Queen Anne’s Lace to Americans was used to initiate miscarriage. It was frequently mixed with other herbs, including pennyroyal, and brewed into a beverage. Other herbs were brewed into beverages by Roman physicians and midwives to do what the authorities no doubt approved of – aid the chance of pregnancy. Others were made to ensure that the child would be a male. The Romans also fashioned intrauterine devices of several different materials – including lead – to prevent unwanted pregnancies.
20. The Romans had a modern method of birth control at their disposal
One of the key innovations of the Romans was the development of a robust public health system. It emerged due to the many representatives from the lands they conquered coming to Rome. Citizens traveled to foreign lands and returned. The result was the presence of diseases contracted at various places finding their way around the empire. Among them were sexually transmitted diseases. It is often reported that the Romans had primitive condoms at their disposal. They did, but they were not considered a form of birth control. They were a device used to protect women from sexually transmitted diseases acquired by men.
The condoms were made of linen cloth, lined with tissue from the intestines and bladders from sheep and goats. It is often speculated that human tissue was used as well, obtained from men killed in battle, but there is little in the way of evidence to support the claim. They were found in the brothels of Rome and the other cities of the empire. Though they were not used for the purpose of contraception, they nonetheless served to support that function. Whether the Romans developed them on their own or learned of their use in many of the lands which their armies visited – such as Egypt – is a source of debate.
21. The Greeks and Romans practiced monogamy in marriage
Both the Greeks and the Romans practiced monogamy as it applied to marriage, in the sense in both that marriage was to one woman at a time. This distinguished them from other ancient civilizations, in which polygamy was common. In contrast, the biblical account of King Solomon described him as having hundreds of wives and concubines, though only one was named in the Bible (Naamah). Roman and Greek monogamy likely arose as part of the egalitarian nature of their civilizations, in which all citizens shared certain rights equally, and even the slaves and lower classes were afforded protection under the common law.
In both Rome and the Greek city-states, divorce was possible, and in some cases demanded by the state, as in the case of Rome requiring cuckolded husbands to divorce their adulterous wives. Other than adultery, there were no laws in either civilization regarding premarital or extramarital relationships. Roman law claimed to support the sanctity but married men who visited the brothels were not guilty of adultery. The monogamous marriage remained a feature of Roman life as Christian sects emerged in Rome, and it was adopted throughout the empire, and in the lands where Christianity continued to spread following the demise of the Western Empire.
22. The Romans practiced exposure of infants for population control as well
Despite the laws mandating married couples throughout the empire to produce children, exposure of children as practiced by the Greeks was common in Roman society. It was not limited to children born frail or suffering from a deformity of some type. Perfectly healthy children could be and were abandoned to face their fate simply as a means of keeping the family small. In Rome (as in Greece) female infants were more likely to be abandoned. Some were lucky, adopted as foundlings into other families, but many were not, and died of thirst and exposure. The practice was followed across the Roman empire.
As noted, exposure was a method of disposing of unwanted children in many societies of the ancient world. Moses was abandoned by his natural mother, and found among the bulrushes by a Princess of Egypt, at least according to the Hebrew Bible. It continued in Rome through most of the fourth century, though in 313 Constantine enacted a law which allowed unwanted children to be sold. Most such children were thus doomed to spend their lives as slaves. Babies who were exposed could be picked up and made into slaves before Constantine’s action, eventually increasing the workforce, another reason the brutal means of population control was tolerated even as Christianity spread across the Roman Empire.
23. Population control and birth control in Ancient Greece and Rome
The Ancient Greeks and the Romans were on opposite ends of the pole when it came to population control. The leaders of the Greek city-states were urged to restrict the growth of the population in order that the state could properly care for its citizens. The Roman authorities urged the citizens of Rome to procreate freely, raising families which would, in turn, raise others, strengthening the empire. In both cases, the citizens of the respecting areas heard the admonishments of the authorities and for the most part, did what they wanted anyway. Laws against adultery in Rome did not end adultery; Emperor Augustus was forced, under the law, to banish his own daughter for the crime.
Both societies condoned prostitution, practiced by males and females, and both condoned homosexuality. Both societies and the laws they supported were dominated by male superiority. In Rome, the use of contraceptives within the marriage was illegal, in the Greek city-states, it was encouraged. Greeks encouraged citizens to refrain from having children, the Romans wanted women to give birth up to the age of fifty. Much of the practices of both civilizations are considered today to have been barbaric, but to their practitioners, they were expedients of the time. Upon the backs of both, western civilization and democracy were built.
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