Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget

Khalid Elhassan - July 25, 2022

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
The rugged terrain of Lubang, in which Hiroo Onoda and his men hid. The Inquirer

6. A Band of Stubborn Holdouts

Without new orders to countermand his last received instructions to fight to the death, Lieutenant Onoda displayed a single-minded devotion to duty. He hid in the jungles and mountains of Lubang, and fought on for twenty nine years, into the 1970s. For nearly three decades, this most famous Japanese holdout survived with his tiny command in the dense thickets of Lubang. They erected bamboo huts, and to eke out a living, they hunted and gathered in the island’s jungle, stole rice and other food from local farmers, and slew the occasional cow for meat.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Hiroo Onoda roughed out for decades as a Japanese holdout. BBC

Tormented by heat and mosquitoes, rats and rain, Onoda’s band patched their increasingly threadbare uniforms, and kept their weapons in working order. In their long holdout, Onoda and his tiny band came across various leaflets that announced that the war had ended. Like other holdouts, they dismissed them as fake news: enemy propaganda and ruses of war. When they encountered a leaflet upon which had been printed the official surrender order from their commanding general, they examined it closely to determine whether it was genuine. They decided that it must be a forgery.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
A 1972 search party for Hiroo Onoda. Observer

5. A One Man War in the Jungles

Even when Hiroo Onoda and his companions recovered airdopped letters and pictures from their own families that urged them to surrender, the band convinced themselves that it was a trick. As the years flew by, Onoda’s tiny four man contingent steadily dwindled, as he lost comrades to a variety of causes. In 1949, one of them simply left the group, wandered alone around Lubang for six months, and eventually surrendered to the authorities. Another was slain by a search party in 1954.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Movie depiction of Hiroo Onoda and his band. The Guardian

His last companion was shot dead by police in the early 1970s, when they came upon the duo as they tried to burn the rice stores of local farmers. Onoda was thus finally alone. Yet he continued to fight, faithful to his interpretation of his last received orders, and doggedly conducted a one man war. In 1974, a backpack travelling Japanese hippie found Onoda, and befriended him. He managed to convince the holdout that the war had ended decades earlier, but Onoda still refused to surrender, absent orders from a superior officer.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
The Japanese backpacker who found Hiroo Onoda, poses with the holdout and his rifle in February, 1974. Rare Historical Photos

4. A Hero, or an Idiot?

The backpacker returned to Japan with photographic proof of his encounter with Hiroo Onoda, and contacted the Japanese government. The authorities in turn tracked down Onoda’s former commanding officer, who traveled. There, Onoda’s wartime commander personally informed him that the war was over, that he was released from military duty, and ordered him to stand down. In 1974, clad in his battered and threadbare uniform, Lieutenant Onoda handed in his sword and other weapons to representatives of the US and Filipino military.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Hiroo Onoda, en route to turning himself in. Viva a Historia

That finally brought Onoda’s private war to an end nearly three decades after the conclusion of WWII. He returned to a hero’s welcome in Japan, but admiration for his single minded devotion to duty was not universal. Back in Lubang, the inhabitants did not view Onoda as a conscientious and honorable man devoted to duty. Instead, they viewed him as a murderous idiot who, during his twenty nine year holdout, had inflicted sundry harms upon the Lubangese. As seen below, they had a point.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Hiroon Onoda became a rancher in Brazil. Observer

3. 1970s Japan Was Unrecognizable to This Holdout

In the course of his nearly three decades holdout in the Philippines, Hiroo Onoda stole, destroyed, and sabotaged the property of the civilians of Lubang Island. He also needlessly ended about thirty local police and farmers. He took their lives as he and his band clashed with them as they stole or “requisitioned” food and supplies in order to continue a war that had ended decades earlier. A militarist through and through, the stubborn holdout believed that he was justified because the war had been a sacred mission.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Hiroo Onoda. New York Times

The pacifist and futuristic Japan that wanted to forget WWII and focus on the future was unrecognizable to Onoda when he returned home. The holdout found himself unable to fit in a country and culture so radically different from the one in which he had grown up. Within a year of his return to Japan, Onoda left it and emigrated to Brazil. There, he bought a cattle ranch, settled into to the life of a rancher, married, and raised family. He died in 2014, aged 91.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Contemporary coverage of Mrs. Ann Stewart’s witchcraft case. Spirits Rising

2. A Twentieth Century Witch?

It was the fall of 1969, and a high school social studies teacher invited a University of Arizona expert on witchcraft and folklore to give a speech to upperclassmen. The speaker, Dr. Byrd Granger, addressed students of Flowing Wells High School in Tucson, AZ, and gave a presentation about witches’ common. According to Dr. Granger, witches often wear devil’s green, have green or blue eyes, blond hair, a pointed left ear with a node, and a widow’s peak – a V-shaped point in the hairline in the center of a forehead. Heads swiveled towards Ann Stewart, a Flowing Wells English teacher who had all of those attributes. Few could have predicted the consequences of that presentation.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Ann Stewart was suspected of witchcraft. Dazed

Flowing Wells High School students began to tease Mrs. Stewart about whether or not she was a witch. She saw an opportunity to enhance the kids’ interest in literature and folklore. As she described it later: “I like to get kids involved. I teach American literature, among other things. Although I’ve never had a unit in the occult, we do delve into early American folklore and witchcraft. It was good fun and it stimulated them“. So Stewart played along. She never said she was a witch, but whenever students asked if she was one, she did not deny it. Instead, she replied with a variant of “Well, I have all the signs. What do you think?” What they – and the school administration – thought got her fired.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Flowing Wells High School. Imgur

1. A 1970s Witch Trial

Ann Stewart wanted to increase her students’ interest in literature, so she suggested in 1970 that they find out what astrology is all about. That further enhanced the rumors about her involvement with the occult. Later that year, a junior high school teacher invited her to speak before her eighth graders about folklore and witchcraft. Mrs. Stewart dressed up and played the part of a witch in order to jazz up the presentation. When those eighth graders arrived in Flowing Wells High School that fall, many of them fueled the rumors that Mrs. Stewart really was a witch. The English teacher thought it was all good fun. Flowing Wells, however, was a particularly conservative community, and many students, their parents, and faculty members at the high school did not get the joke.

Moments that People Who Lived Through the 1970s Will Never Forget
Flowing Wells, Arizona, feared witches as late as the 1970s. Flickr

Mrs. Stewart was suspended on November 20th, 1970, for: “teaching about witchcraft, having stated that you are a witch in a way that affects students psychologically“. She was also accused of insubordination, discussing subjects beyond the curriculum, being a bad influence on students, and aggravating other teachers. The suspension of a teacher in 1970 for witchcraft became international news. In conservative Flowing Wells, Stewart became a pariah, shunned by neighbors and former friends. She appealed to the school board, but it confirmed the decision to fire her. So she sued in court, and there won on grounds that the board had violated the legal procedures for the dismissal of a tenured teacher like Stewart. The court ordered her reinstatement, but as if February, 1972, she had not returned to her job. It is unclear if she ever taught at Flowing Wells again.

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Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

ABC News – The Pet Rock Captured a Moment, and Made its Creator a Millionaire

Balance Careers – The Truth Behind the Infamous Fish Tank Platform Shoes

Beadle, Jeremy, and Harrison, Ian – Firsts, Lasts, and Only’s: Crime (2007)

Best Life – 50 Things Only People Who Lived in the 1970s Will Remember

Biography – Nicky Barnes

Bleacher Report – Cleveland Indians’ Ten Cent Beer Night: The Worst Idea Ever

Cleveland dot Com – Fans Riot on 10 Cent Beer Night: On This Day in Cleveland Indians History

Cleveland Magazine, May 24th, 2007 – The Experience: Swiping Jeff Borroughs’ Cap on 10-Cent Beer Night

Crime and Investigation – Charles Sobhraj: The Serpent

Daily Beast, December 28th, 2017 – The Long Rise and Fast Fall of New York’s Black Mafia

Damn Interesting – The Soldier Who Wouldn’t Quit

Encyclopedia dot Com – Vietnam: Drug Use In

Ferranti, Seth – Street Legends, Volume 2 (2010)

Groovy History – Comic Book Rip-Off Ads: Sea Monkeys, X-Ray Specs, and More

History Collection – When America Actually Trusted the Media

How Stuff Works – Japanese Holdouts

Kamienski, Lucasz – Shooting Up: A Short History of Drugs and War (2016)

Mental Floss – France Stopped Using the Guillotine as Star Wars Premiered

Mental Floss – Hard Sell: A History of the Pet Rock

Mob Museum, The – Did Frank Matthews Get Away With It?

Murderpedia – Charles Sobhraj

NBC Sports – Today in Baseball History: Indians Hold Infamous Ten Cent Beer Night

Neville, Richard, and Clarke, Julia – On the Trail of the Serpent: The Life and Crimes of Charles Sobhraj (2020)

New York Times, December 5th, 1971 – Teacher is Upheld in Witchcraft Case

NPR, January 2nd, 2012 – What Vietnam Taught Us About Breaking Bad Habits

Onoda, Hiroo – No Surrender: My Thirty-Year War (1974)

Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 10th, 2014 – Hiroo Onoda: Hero, or Villain?

Sweatpants & Coffee – Sea Monkeys: False Advertising of Science Can Still be Fascinating

Tuscaloosa News, February 15th, 1972 – ‘Witch’ Tag Clings to Fired Teacher

Ultimate Classic Rock – Les Harvey, Electrocuted During a Concert

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