Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Little-Known Ancient History Facts

Little-Known Ancient History Facts

Khalid Elhassan - September 2, 2019

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Battle of Carrhae. Pintrest

14. Rome’s Richest Man Came to a Poor End

To get some military glory, Crassus led an army of 50,000 to invade Parthia, a wealthy kingdom comprised of today’s Iraq and Iran. He trusted a local chieftain to guide him, but the guide was in Parthian pay. He led Crassus along an arid route, until, hot and thirsty, they reached Carrhae in today’s Turkey. There, Crasus and his army encountered a Parthian force of 9000 horse archers and 1000 armored cataphract heavy cavalry. Although they outnumbered the Parthians 5:1, the Romans were demoralized by the rigors of the march and by Crassus’ uninspiring leadership. The mounted archers shot up the Romans from a distance, retreating whenever the Romans advanced. As casualties mounted, morale plummeted. Crassus, unable to think of a plan, rested his hopes on the Parthians running out of arrows. The Parthians however had a supply train of thousands of camels loaded with arrows.

Finally, Crassus ordered his son to take the Roman cavalry and some infantry, and drive off the horse archers. The Parthians feigned retreat, Crassus’ son rashly pursued, and was slaughtered with all his men. The Parthians rode back to Roman army, and taunted Crassus with his son’s head mounted on a spear. Shaken, Crassus retreated to Carrhae, abandoning thousands of his wounded. The Parthians invited him to negotiate, offering to let his army go in exchange for Roman territorial concessions. Crassus was reluctant, but his men threatened to mutiny if he did not, so he went. Things went bad, violence broke out at the meeting, and it ended with Crassus and his generals killed. Mocking his avarice, the Parthians poured molten gold down Crassus’ throat. The surviving Romans fled, but most were hunted down and killed or captured. Out of Crassus’ 50,000, only 10,000 made it back to Roman territory.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Trajan. Wikimedia

13. Two Emperors’ Lucky Escape From a Natural Disaster

In 115 BC, Antioch was a flourishing and economically vibrant Greco-Roman city in Syria, and was the Roman Empire’s third biggest metropolis after Rome and Alexandria. On December 13th of that year, as described by the historian Cassius Dio, a loud and bellowing roar was heard in Antioch, then the ground started to violently vibrate and shake. People and entire trees were tossed up into the air as if they were water drops shaken off a wet dog’s fur, while buildings were lifted off the ground then slammed back down to earth. Many were killed or injured by falling debris, and many more by buildings collapsing atop and burying them. The aftershocks, which continued for days, killed and injured many survivors of the first day’s tremors. About 260,000 people lost their lives, and many more were injured and/or became homeless.

The Roman emperor Trajan and his chief deputy and successor, the future emperor Hadrian, were wintering in Antioch at the time, overseeing preparations for a military campaign against Parthia. Trajan managed to escape via a window from the building in which he had been housed, and was fortunate to suffer only light injuries. As buildings and debris kept falling due to aftershocks, the emperor and his entourage relocated to the open hippodrome, or race track, where they erected tents and set up house. His deputy Hadrian also escaped with only slight injuries, and both set to overseeing the recovery and rebuilding process, which was begun by Trajan, and after his death in 117, was continued and completed by his successor, Hadrian.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
The Battle of Thermopylae. Hulton Archive

12. Ancient Greece’s Greatest Traitor

In 480 BC, Persia’s king Xerxes invaded Greece with a huge army. The Malians, in northeastern Greece, were among the many Greeks in the Persian army’s path who chose discretion over valor, and collaborated with the Persians against their fellow Greeks. Along the Persian army’s route through Malian lands was a narrow pass known as Thermopylae, or “hot gates”, situated between mountains to the south and the cliff-lined shore of the Malian Gulf to the north. A small Spartan led Greek force, under the command of Sparta’s king Leonidas, occupied and fortified the pass at Thermopylae. The Persians, forced to attack directly up the pass on a narrow front, were unable to make use of their advantages in numbers and cavalry, and were repeatedly bested by the more heavily armed and armored Greeks, especially the elite core of superbly trained Spartans.

The Persians were stuck at Thermopylae for three days, until a Malian, Ephialtes of Traches, told Xerxes of a mountain track that bypassed Thermopylae and reemerged to join the road behind the Greek position. In exchange for the promise of rich rewards, Ephialtes showed the Persians the way. Alerted that he was about to be outflanked, Leonidas sent the rest of the Greeks away, but stayed behind with what remained of a 300-strong contingent of Spartans, who fought to the death until they were wiped out. Ephialtes was reviled, and his name came to mean “nightmare” in Greek. He never collected his reward because the Persians were defeated at Salamis later that year, and at Platea the following year, and their invasion of Greece collapsed. Ephialtes fled, with a reward on his head. He was killed ten years later over an unrelated matter, but the Spartans rewarded his killer anyhow.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
1st century AD portrait bust, said to be that of Josephus. Gertjan Glismeijer

11. The Leader Who Saved Himself With a Rigged Lottery

Yosef ben Matityahu (37 – 100 AD), who went on to Latinize his name into Titus Flavius Josephus, was a Jewish general and leader who commanded rebel forces in Galilee at the start of the Great Jewish Revolt (66 – 73 AD). With a combination of guile and force – such as his bluffing the town of Tiberias into surrender with an overwhelming display of force from a navy of 230 boats that, unbeknownst to the Tiberans carried no more than five men each – Josephus brought Galilee under his control. Eventually, the Roman Empire struck back, and general Vespasian was appointed to crush the revolt. Vespasian marched from Syria into Judea, with Galilee as his first stop. Josephus gathered an army, but its undisciplined ranks broke and ran at the first sight of the Roman legions, and fled to the hilltop town of Jotapata.

There, Vespasian surrounded Josephus and his men, and after a 47 day siege, stormed the town. Josephus and the rebel leaders fled to a secret hiding place down a well. However, a prisoner told the Romans, who shouted an offer down the well for Josephus to surrender, as Vespasian wanted him alive. Josephus wanted to surrender, but the other leaders insisted that they all commit suicide instead – death before dishonour, and all that. So Josephus suggested they do so in an orderly fashion, by drawing lots, with the loser of each round getting killed by the others. Josephus rigged the lots, as one by one the leaders were killed, until he was one of only two men left alive, at which point he convinced the other survivor that they should surrender. They did. The Romans summarily executed the other man, but Josephus was taken in shackles to Vespasian.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Roman capture of Jerusalem during the Great Jewish Revolt. Pintrest

10. From Rebel to Roman Friend

When Josephus was brought before Vespasian, he claimed to be a prophet, and told the Roman general that he had a vision in which he saw Vespasian as emperor. Vespasian, who was already pondering a revolt, spared Josephus’ life and kept him as a prisoner. In 69 AD, after Nero’s ouster and suicide, three Roman generals had followed in quick succession as Roman emperors, and Vespasian decided that he should be the fourth. He led a successful revolt that put him on the throne, and recalling Josephus’ prophecy, ordered him freed. While Vespasian sailed off to Rome, Josephus joined Vespasian’s son, Titus, in besieging Jerusalem and finishing off the revolt.

After a horrific siege, the city fell in 70 AD. Titus ordered Jerusalem’s complete destruction, while tens of thousands of prisoners were sold off as slaves or forced to fight to death in games for Titus’ amusement and to celebrate his victory. Titus then took Josephus back with him to Rome, where he held a triumphal parade featuring captive rebel leaders chained to models of their towns on floats that paraded down Rome’s street, en route to their execution sites. Josephus joined Vespasian’s household, and spent the remainder of his life writing, leaving behind a valuable history of the Jewish Revolt.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
The Macedonian phalanx attacking king Porus’ center during the Battle of the Hydaspes River, by Andre Castaigne, 1898. Wikimedia

9. How Alexander the Great Won a Victory by Lulling the Enemy

In 326 BC, Alexander the Great marched into the Punjab. Its king, Porus, beat the invaders to the Hydaspes river, which Alexander had to cross. When the Macedonians arrived, Porus camped across the river from Alexander, and shadowed the Macedonian’s movements from the opposite side, as the invader marched up and down the far bank, seeking a safe crossing. So long as Porus shadowed the Macedonians from the opposite bank, crossing the deep and fast-moving Hydaspes could prove catastrophic if made against opposition. The Indians would be able to strike the Macedonians at their most vulnerable mid-river, or fall upon and overwhelm a portion of Alexander’s on the Indian side of the river, before the crossing was completed. So Alexander set out to lull Porus by marching his troops up and down his side of the river each day.

The Indians vigilantly shadowed those movements at first, but over time, they became accustomed to them and grew complacent. Alexander then quietly drew off the bulk of his army, leaving behind a contingent to make noisy demonstrations in order to keep the Indians fixated on them. In the meantime, Alexander hurried to a crossing upriver, and safely got his force across the Hydaspes, unopposed. Once on Porus’ side of the river, Alexander advanced to attack him, and caught the Indians in a pincer between the main force under his command, and the smaller contingent left behind to keep Porus occupied. That contingent crossed the Hydaspes, and attacked the Indians’ rear and flank when they turned to face Alexander. The battle was hard fought, but it ended in a total Macedonian victory.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Spartans and a Helot. Quora

8. Sparta’s Subjugation of the Helots

The Spartans were unique in Ancient Greece, in that they enslaved other Greeks. The entire Spartan system and economy was based upon the enslavement of their Messenian neighbors, whom they had conquered in the 8th to 7th century, BC. After a long war, the victorious Spartans transformed the entire Messenian population into state slaves, known as Helots. The Helots had few rights, and could be killed almost at will by their overlords. The Helots were also subjected to sundry humiliations to remind them of the inferiority of their status, such as being forced to get super drunk. The staggering serfs were then shown to Spartan children as object lessons in the evils of overindulgence in booze, and a demonstration of the superiority of Spartans over the contemptible Helots who behaved in such bestial manner.

The Spartans had not been that different from other Greeks before subjugating the Helots. However, once they had been conquered, controlling the restive Helots, who outnumbered the Spartans about ten to one, required the transformation of Sparta into a wholly militarized state and society. It also became a police state, with a secret police known as the Krypteia, established to spy on Helots and kill any who seemed restive or showed leadership potential. Thousands of years later, the Nazis looked to Sparta and its treatment of the Helots when they concocted their plans for lebensraum. Like the Spartans, the Nazis hoped to conquer their neighbors in Eastern Europe and Russia. They planned to then exterminate most of the native Slav population, and reduce the survivors to Helots, who would serve the German ‘Master Race’ like the Messenians had served the Spartans.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Helot revolt. Poetry in Form

7. The Helot Revolts Against Sparta

Sparta’s Helots frequently revolted, only to be brutally crushed by the better trained and equipped Spartans, then subjected to unsparing revenge. For example, after one failed revolt, thousands of Helots were gaily decked out, marched out of town, and never heard from again. In 464 BC, a major earthquake struck Sparta, killing thousands. Taking advantage of the turmoil, the Helots made another bid for freedom by rising up and establishing a fortified base in the mountains. The hard pressed Spartans asked Athens for help. A conservative faction controlled Athens at the time, so 4000 Athenian soldiers were duly sent. However, once they arrived, the Athenians’ democratic ideas alarmed the Spartans. Fearing that such notions would spread to their Helots and further fuel the uprising, or that the Athenians might switch sides, the Spartans sent them back home.

The insulted Athenians threw out their conservative leaders and repudiated their alliance with Sparta. Left to their own devices, the Spartans eventually managed to crush the Helot uprising after two years of bitter fighting, in 462 BC. They then subjected their slaves to yet another round of savage reprisals. The Helots finally gained their freedom a century later, when the Theban leader Epaminondas crushed the Spartans in battle, then liberated its Helots, and set up an independent country for them.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
A rock face relief, depicting the victory of Persia’s Shapur I over Valerian. Wikimedia

6. The Humiliating Fate of Emperor Valerian

Valerian (circa 195 – 264 AD), who ruled the Roman Empire from 253 to 260, was crowned during a chaotic period known as the Crisis of the Third Century. Realizing that it was impractical for a single emperor to oversee the sprawling empire, Valerian appointed his son to command the western half of the empire, while he headed east with an army of 70,000 men to deal with the newly arisen menace of Sassanid Persia. In 260, Valerian fought an army commanded by Persian king Shapur I in the Battle of Edessa, and was decisively defeated. The remnants of the Roman army were besieged, and Valerian tried to personally negotiate a way out with Shapur. The peace talks turned out to be a trap, however, and Valerian was seized by Shapur when he showed up.

After his capture, Valerian was made Shapur’s slave, and subjected to sundry humiliations. The Persian king took particular delight in advertising his victory and demonstrating his might by using the former Roman emperor as a foot stool to mount his horse. Valerian’s death was as ignominious and undignified as his captivity, and came after he offended Shapur by offering a huge ransom in exchange for his release. As punishment, and to show his disdain for the offer, Shapur forced Valerian to drink molten gold. His humiliation continued even after death, as his captor ordered his corpse flayed, and had his skin dyed and displayed at a temple.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Miltiades. Wikimedia

5. Athenians’ Ingratitude Towards a Savior

One of the drawbacks of ancient Athens’ direct democracy was that the fickle mood swings of the citizens were swiftly translated into government actions. One hallmark of that fickleness was the notoriety that Athens gained for the speed with which it put heroes upon pedestals one moment, then dashed them to the ground as public enemies the next. Nowhere was that more evident than in the Athenians’ treatment of Miltiades (550 – 489 BC), a general who beat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. It was an upset victory against a numerically superior force, and it saved Athens from Persian conquest.

Miltiades was lionized by the Athenians, but it did not last long. The following year, he led a strong expedition against some Greek islands that had supported the Persians, but he bungled it badly. Miltiades was defeated, and for icing on the cake, he suffered a severe leg wound in the process. Given the superior forces under his command, Miltiades’ defeat seemed so absurd to the Athenians, that they figured it could only be explained by deliberate treachery on his part. So his fellow citizens, whom he had so recently saved, put him on trial for treason. He was convicted and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to a heavy fine. Miltiades was sent to prison while his family and friends raised the money to pay the fine, but he died before the fine was paid when his leg wound became infected.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Cambyses II. Pintrest

4. The Disgruntled Doctor Who Triggered a War

The rise of Persia in the 6th century BC upended the ancient Middle East, as the surging newcomers conquered left and right, and became the ancient world’s greatest empire until then. For a while, the Persians held off from taking on Egypt, until a disgruntled Egytpian doctor instigated a war. It began when Persia’s king Cambyses II wrote Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis II (570 – 524 BC), asking him to send an eye doctor. The doctor chosen by Amasis was upset at getting picked out of all of Egypt’s physician to get dragged away from his family and sent to distant Persia. So upon reaching Persia, the doctor got his revenge by advising Cambyses to ask for Amasis’ favorite daughter, knowing that it would put Amasis in a bind: accept and grow wretched at the loss of his daughter, or refuse, and offend Cambyses.

Amasis did not want want to send his beloved daughter to Persia, knowing that Cambyses did not even want her as a wife, but just as a mere concubine. However, the Egyptian ruler was also intimidated by Persia’s power. So Amasis sent the daughter of a former Pharaoh, claiming that she was his. The former Egyptian princess was no more pleased than the Egyptian doctor had been at getting sent to Persia. Soon as she reached the Persian king, she told Cambyses of the ruse. Angered, he declared war and prepared to invade Egypt.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
Cambyses capturing Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik III. Fun With Cy

3. The Greek Mercenary Who Delivered Egypt to the Persians

As Pharaoh Amasis gathered his forces and prepared to defend Egypt against the Persians, he managed to offend Phanes of Halicarnassus, a respected Greek general in his service. So the disgruntled Phanes decided to switch sides, and set out to join Persia’s king Cambyses. Amasis sent assassins to kill or capture Phanes, but after harrowing adventures, including an escape from captivity by getting his guards drunk, the fleeing general reached the Persians. Cambyses was trying to figure out the best invasion route into Egypt, and Phanes recommended a route through Arab tribal lands. He advised the Persian king to seek safe passage from their rulers, and to sweeten the request with generous gifts. Cambyses heeded the advice, and the Arabs gladly granted safe conduct through their territory.

By then, Amasis had died, and was succeeded as pharaoh by his son, Psamtik III, Enraged at Phanes, Psamtik tricked the Greek general’s sons into meeting with him, took them captive, and had them executed. Then, as an object lesson to would-be traitors, he had their blood drained and mixed with wine, which he drank and made his councilors consume as well. Phanes got his revenge by leading the Persian army into Egypt, acting as Cambyses’ guide and military advisor. With the Greek general’s assistance, the Persians defeated Psamtik’s forces, and forced him to retreat to his capital, where they besieged and eventually captured him. Phanes then engineered the execution of his sons’ murderer by uncovering and informing Cambyses of a plot by the captive pharaoh to stir up a revolt.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
The Gracchi brothers. Ancient Rome

2. The Gracchi: The Reformer Brothers Who Tried to Save the Roman Republic

Rome’s legions were originally drawn from those who could afford to arm and equip themselves – mostly a middle class of independent farmers. However, the independent farmer class steadily shrank over the generations, as public lands were illegally seized and consolidated into vast estates controlled by the patrician senatorial classes. In addition to illegality, those large estates, worked by massive slave gangs, drove small farmers off their lands and into poverty, diminishing the pool of prospective legionaries. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (circa 164 – 133 BC) was a Roman tribune of the plebes and a populares politician – a faction that supported plebeians against the conservative aristocratic patricians. He sponsored agrarian reforms to help small independent farmers, who were being driven into extinction by the concentration of public lands into illegal giant estates controlled by a small elite of the patrician senatorial class.

Tiberius Gracchus proposed to break the giant estates and redistribute the lands in small parcels to lower class Romans. He was vehemently opposed by the senatorial class, and when he pushed through legislation that began redistributing land, he was murdered by a senatorial mob during a riot organized by optimates – conservatives who sought to limit the power of the popular assemblies and the tribunes, while extending that of the pro-aristocratic Senate. It was the Roman Republic’s first act of organized political violence, and it broke a double taboo: that against political violence in general, and that against visiting violence upon a tribune of the plebes, whose persons had been deemed inviolate for centuries. Tiberius Gracchus’ cause was carried on by his younger brother, Gaius, who as seen below, met a similar fate at the hands of Rome’s conservatives.

Little-Known Ancient History Facts
The flight of Gaius Gracchus from a Roman mob. Eon Images

1. Gaius Gracchus Ended Up Like His Older Brother

Tiberius Gracchus’ younger brother Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154 – 121 BC) followed in his older brother’s footsteps. He became a tribune of the plebes, a populares politician advancing the cause of the plebeians, an advocate of agrarian reform, and finally, a victim of political violence when the conservative Roman Senate and the optimates murdered him. Elected a tribune of the plebes in 123 BC, Gaius Gracchus used the popular assemblies to push through his brother’s agrarian reforms, and advocated other measures to lessen the power of the senatorial nobility. He also pushed through legislation to provide all Romans with subsidized wheat, and was reelected tribune in 122 BC. In 121 BC, the Senate again organized a riot to go after a turbulent tribune. After one of his supporters was killed, Gaius Gracchus and his followers retreated to the Aventine Hill, the traditional asylum of plebeians in an earlier age.

The Senate ordered the consuls to go after Gaius, which they did with a mob. Gaius committed suicide, and the mob massacred hundreds of his followers, then threw their bodies into the Tiber river. In the long run, the murders of the Gracchi brothers backfired upon the optimates and the patrician class. The patricians were virtually exterminated during rounds of proscriptions that claimed the lives of thousands, first by the dictator Sulla going after populares following his victory in Rome’s first civil war, only for the pendulum to swing a generation later when Octavian and Mark Antony went after the optimates in an even bloodier and more thorough proscription following their victory in a civil war against Julius Caesar’s assassins. What relatively few patricians survived were gradually killed off later as they were caught up in or were falsely accused of conspiracies against various emperors, until they became virtually extinct.

_________________

Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Aird, Hamish – Pericles: The Rise and Fall of Athenian Democracy (2004)

Ancient History Encyclopedia – The Roman Funeral

Bright Side – 10 Things Ancient People Did That Would be Totally Weird Today

Burn, A. R. – The Pelican History of Greece (1982)

Casius Dio – Roman History, Book LXVIII

Encyclopedia Britannica – First Jewish Revolt

Encyclopedia Britannica – Greek Tyrants

Factinate – 42 Bizarre and Disturbing Facts About the Ancient World

Gonick, Larry – Cartoon History of the Universe: From the Big Bang to Alexander the Great (1990)

Harvey, Brian K. – Daily Life in Ancient Rome: A Sourcebook (2016)

Herodutus – The Histories

Holland, Tom – Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic (2004)

Madden, John, Classics Ireland, University College Dublin, Vol. 3, 1996 – Slavery in the Roman Empire: Numbers and Origins

Mayo Clinic – Lead Poisoning

Medical Daily, October 7th, 2016 – The Use of Poop in Medical Treatments Throughout History

Moseley, James – The Mystery of Herbs and Spices: Scandalous, Romantic, and Intimate Biographies of the World‘s Most Notorious Ingredients (2006)

Live Science – Mummified Kitten Served as Egyptian Offering

Nature, May 24th, 2016 – The Secret History of Ancient Toilets

Office of NIH History – A Timeline of Pregnancy Testing

Plutarch – Parallel Lives: Life of Crassus

Sherrow, Victoria L. – Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History (2006)

Suetonius – The Lives of the Twelve Caesars

Tacitus – Histories

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War

Washington Post, February 17th, 2016 – Lead Poisoning and the Fall of Rome

Ephialtes

Roman Hairstyles

Valerian (Emperor)

Advertisement