Life in the Roman Army and the Realities of Rome
Life in the Roman Army and the Realities of Rome

Life in the Roman Army and the Realities of Rome

Khalid Elhassan - November 19, 2021

Life in the Roman Army and the Realities of Rome
The poena cullei. Pictolic

1. Unsurprisingly, Given the Patriarchy’s Great Power in Ancient Rome, to Kill One’s Father Was Amongst the Most Heinous Crimes in Roman Eyes

In light of the extraordinary powers that Roman fathers exercised over their family, it is no surprise that, from time to time, some kids snapped and did in the patriarchs. Since Ancient Rome was as pure a distillation of patriarchy as ever existed, that patriarchy took a particularly dim view of the murder of patriarchs. The Romans were particularly horrified and revolted by patricide, or the murder of one’s father. So they expressed their abhorrence with a particularly inventive punishment: poena cullei, or the “Punishment of the Sack”.

In accordance with Roman law, those convicted of patricide were first severely beaten with blood colored rods, while their heads were covered in a bag made of a wolf’s hide. Then the patricide was sewn into the poena cullei, a sack made of ox hide, together with an assortment of live animals that included a snake, a rooster, a monkey, and a dog. The sack was beaten to rile up the animals and get them to bite and tear at the patricide. It was then put on a cart driven by black oxen, to a river or the sea, where the sack and its occupants were thrown into the water.

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Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Ancient History Encyclopedia – The Roman Funeral

Dart, Christopher J. – The Social War, 91 to 88 BCE: A History of the Italian Insurgency Against the Roman Republic (2014)

Fuhrman, Manfred – Cicero and the Roman Republic (1992)

Encyclopedia Britannica – Battle of Caudine Forks

Encyclopedia Britannica – Sulla, Roman Dictator

Goldworthy, Adrian – The Complete Roman Army (2003)

History Collection – The Sacred Chickens That Shaped Roman Decision-Making

Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 10 (1920) – The Lex Pompeia and the Poena Cullei

Livy – Ab Urbe Condita Libri

Nature, May 24th, 2016 – The Secret History of Ancient Toilets

Parkin, Tim, and Pomeroy, Arthur – Roman Social History (2007)

Plutarch – The Parallel Lives: The Life of Brutus

Plutarch – The Parallel Lives: The Life of Sulla

Plutarch – The Parallel Lives: The Life of Tiberius Gracchus

Scullard, Howard Hayes – From the Gracchi to Nero (1982)

Severy, Beth – Augustus and the Family at the Birth of the Roman Empire (2003)

Smithsonian Magazine, August 20, 2013 – From Gunpowder to Teeth Whitener: The Science Behind Historic Use of Urine

United Nations of Roma Victrix – The Samnite Wars

Vintage News – The Romans Used Urine For Mouthwash

Washington Post, February 17th, 2016 – Lead Poisoning and the Fall of Rome

Watson, George Ronald – The Roman Soldier (1969)

Wikipedia – Roman Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula

Wikipedia – Roman Hairstyles

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