13. The doo wop sound emerged from American cities in the 1950s
The sound of extensive vocal harmonies behind the voice of a lead singer, as presented by Smokey Robinson and the Miracles; the Platters; and the Coasters was itself rooted in the earlier works of groups such as the Mills Brothers and the Ink Spots. The style developed from the sounds of the streets of American cities, where groups would gather together for spontaneous singing sessions on street corners or alleyways. By the end of the decade the doo wop style, which had exploded among black acts, merged with rock and roll in a style reflected by several bands in the United States, most notably Dion and the Belmonts.
Dion and the Belmonts were from New York (the Bronx) and their accents were a discernible part of their sound. They had several hits before splitting up in 1960, but their lead singer, Dion DiMucci, merged their doo wop style with rock and roll in the record Runaround Sue in 1961, followed by The Wanderer later that year. Both songs sold well in Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. The idea of merging a rock and roll beat with complex layers of vocal harmonies was yet another influence on the growing musical scene in Britain, particularly in Liverpool, where several bands were by then following the lead from the United States.
14. The transistor radio changed the way music was heard
Until 1954 one needed to be near a radio, which was plugged into an outlet, to listen to music. Or near a record player, or jukebox, or at a record store, or in a car. That year, the transistor radio was introduced, and teens could carry the source of their music with them to school, or to social activities after school, or to work. The booming post-war American economy gave teens access to spending money, leisure time, and school activities which had not existed before the war, due to the stresses of the Great Depression. Portable record players, which played only 45 rpm records soon followed. The sales of radios, records, and record players soared.
The same wasn’t true in Britain and Europe, both of which were still in recovery from World War II. Rationing from the war continued in Britain. There was less disposable income, and in any case, less product to listen to on the radio. The market in the United States led to heavy competition for teens’ disposable dollars in the form of new acts in rhythm and blues and rock and roll, and that competition was soon being shipped, in the form of the performers and their records, to a welcoming British market. The stream of new acts from America to Britain seemed unending through 1962.
15. The Cunard Yanks connected Liverpool with the culture and sound of America
Liverpool had long been Britain’s major port linking the United Kingdom with the United States. Though the transatlantic passenger trade had decreased significantly following World War II, trade between the English speaking nations remained brisk. Britain remained depressed financially, while the American economy boomed. Trade between the nations was by sea, and the Cunard Yanks were the employees of the ships which traveled between the countries. The sailors visited the Canadian port of Montreal and the American port of New York, returning to Liverpool with not only music, but other aspects of American culture such as jeans, biker jackets, and ducktail haircuts.
They brought back to Britain products unavailable to all but the wealthiest, including washing machines, cameras and projectors, record players and tape recorders, suits and hats and overcoats. And they brought back musical instruments. One such young seaman, a man named Ivan Haywood, purchased a black Gretsch guitar in New York in 1957. Upon his return to Liverpool, he sold the instrument to a boy with a scouse accent named George Harrison. The British seamen who worked on the Cunard ships connecting America to England were the chief pipeline of American rock and roll to Britain until the late 1950s.
16. The teen embrace of rock and roll drew an adult backlash
Rock and roll music in America drew the majority of its fans from teenagers, both black and white, male and female. Though by no means all, many adults were wary of the new genre, and many more openly hostile towards rock and roll. It was called the devil’s music, particularly from conservative Southern Baptist churches. It was blamed for juvenile delinquency, lower grades in school, defiance of authority, sexual promiscuity, and racial intermixing. The music itself, with its steadily pulsing rhythm, was called sexually provocative, as were the dance moves of its performers and listeners. The dance moves exhibited by Elvis Presley and others were regarded as obscene by those determined to guard public mores.
Similar concerns followed the music across the water as its popularity grew in Britain. Rock and roll fans began to dress differently, adopt American slang and American mannerisms. British youth divided itself into groups called mods and rockers, each with their distinctive dress, and each openly hostile to the other, as well as to adult authority in all of its manifestations. Teen contempt for authority in staid Britain was blamed on the evil influence of the American music which was uprooting British tradition. When Brian Epstein decided to clean up the Beatles in order to make them more presentable to adults, he elevated “his boys” above the fray over the bad influences of rock and roll.
The clubs and cafes of Liverpool were crowded with fans listening to a newly developed genre of rock and roll music, called beat music, around 1962. In Liverpool the most popular of the beat bands was the Beatles, having honed their craft in Hamburg, Germany. The Beatles covered songs made famous in Britain by Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Smokey Robinson, Buddy Holly, and many others, including songs from Broadway musicals popular at the time. They covered songs from the so-called girl bands, such as the Shirelles. They also performed original songs, written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, which were received enthusiastically by their growing fan base.
In 1963 the band began an extensive period of touring throughout Great Britain, playing virtually every day, sometimes multiple times a day, in theaters and cinemas, and music halls. The Beatles appeared in uniform clothing, wearing neckties and jackets, rather than the black leather of their early days. They bowed to the audience to acknowledge the applause of their fans. As McCartney sang the lyrics from Little Richard or Fats Domino, laden with sexual innuendo, his appearance was one of innocence. The Beatles weren’t threatening to the parents of their fans, they were neat, and polite, and ready to rule the music world.
The ships which plied the waterways between Liverpool and New York and other American ports carried British culture and change back to the Americas as well. The large number of American troops which had passed through Great Britain during World War II generated interest in aspects of British culture. Coming back to New York from Britain were a number of British products, including British records. Music from newer British bands seeped into the United States in the months before the full-fledged British Invasion of the mid-1960s. This created a small demand for British acts in the early 1960s.
A British group from Tottenham, the Dave Clark 5, cut their teeth playing the enlisted clubs on military bases, developing a fanbase which included American GIs. Their popularity created a demand for their records in the early 1960s, which sold well enough in America that they were actually the lead band of the British Invasion, the first to go on a full tour of the United States (though their Ed Sullivan appearance followed the Beatles). The new sound of rock and roll came to America in a manner similar to how its predecessor went to England, carried in the holds of the ships linking the ports of the two countries.
19. Rock and roll was in a lull in America in 1963
Rock and roll was at a low point in the summer of 1963. Jerry Lee Lewis had lost popularity due to his marriage and other issues, making him toxic to promoters and concert managers. Elvis had returned from the Army singing ballads and making movies, instead of performing rock and roll music. Teen idols, manufactured by record companies and movie studios, such as Fabian, Frankie Avalon, Paul Anka, and Pat Boone, dominated the record charts and theater marquees. The top charting song in the United States in 1963 was Sugar Shack, by Jimmy Gilmer. Folk music and the California surf sound displaced rock and roll.
The Beatles became an international phenomenon in 1963, their records selling massively everywhere but in the United States. EMI owned Capitol Records in the United States, but Capitol refused to market the band in America. American newspapers noticed the craze in Britain and reported it to their readers, usually in dismissive terms. Capitol offered the Beatles’ records to a small independent label, Vee-Jay Records, of Chicago. Vee-Jay copies of Please Please Me failed to sell, in part because the label lacked the resources to ensure it received sufficient airplay, and EMI cancelled the contract in August, citing non-payment of royalties as the cause.
20. American record producers felt rehashed American rock and roll wouldn’t appeal to audiences
The press in America covered Beatlemania in Britain as the British finally accepting rock and roll music, at a time when the fad had run its course. EMI tried again to sell Beatles records in the United States, through Philadelphia’s Swan Records. The Beatles’ She Loves You on that label also failed to sell when released in September. In November Brian Epstein and Ed Sullivan came to an agreement for the band to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show in February, 1964, and Epstein leveraged a record distribution deal with Capitol using the substantial influence of Sullivan’s large weekly audience. On November 22, 1963, the CBS Morning News aired a segment on Beatlemania in Great Britain.
The segment was to have been repeated on the CBS Evening News that same day. That afternoon John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Through the end of the year and well into January, the nation remained in a state of shock as well as suspicion over the events surrounding the assassination and its aftermath. Such was the national mood when The Beatles appeared on Sullivan’s show in February. By that time, I Want to Hold Your Hand had been released by Capitol, and was a major hit in the United States. American rock and roll had returned to the land of its birth, Anglicized along the way.
21. The British invasion rejuvenated American rock and roll
Until 1964, British acts had failed gain popularity in the United States, where music fans regarded them as tepid imitations of American rock and roll. But by 1964 American rock and roll was little more than a tepid imitation of itself. The British Invasion introduced a fresh sound by injecting new ideas into American music. When the Rolling Stones made their first tour of America in 1964, their setlist was almost entirely American rhythm and blues songs and blues standards, as well as Chuck Berry’s rocker, Carol. The British bands, in particular the Beatles and the Stones, also changed the way American bands recorded their music.
In America, albums usually included two or three high quality tracks – the singles – and the rest was for the most part filler. The British bands didn’t typically repeat their singles on albums, and instead produced albums which contained higher quality tracks. In the United States, Capitol (The Beatles) and London (the Rolling Stones) issued copies of albums which differed in content from the British releases, including the bands’ hit singles and removing other tracks. American bands recognized the higher quality content of the British albums and began to change the way they recorded their own music, with bands demanding more control over the process from producers.
22. The early Beatles were modeled after Buddy Holly on stage
With the exception of hairstyles, the Beatles appeared to American audiences as Buddy Holly had to British the preceding decade; guitars, bass, and drums, layered vocals, and a bow to the audience following a number. Holly had by then been dead five years, and though his records were still receiving airplay, his visual memory had faded. But not to the British acts, which had imitated him faithfully during their development. When Paul McCartney sang Long Tall Sally it was in a voice taught to him by its composer, Little Richard, during a tour in England in which the Beatles had shared the bill with the rock and roll pioneer.
Little Richard too had been largely forgotten in the United States by the important teen audience, having switched to gospel music following a religious experience in the late 1950s. He had returned to rock and roll in the early 1960s in Britain (when he toured with the Beatles) but his career had not recovered in the United States by the time the Beatles arrived. American teens heard his music, through the voice of Paul McCartney, without knowing that McCartney was imitating the man who had brought the song to Britain from America just a few years earlier.
23. Other British bands brought American music home during the British Invasion
The success of the Beatles brought several British bands to America, with American record companies competing for the rights to market their records. A review of the track listings for the albums the bands released in America, and supported by playing the songs on their tours, reveals the extent of the influence of American rhythm and blues, rock and roll, and blues on the British. American folk music had influenced them too, carried to Britain by the early stars. Surprisingly, the influence of Elvis Presley was limited, Elvis was not a songwriter of note, and he never performed in Britain. But a guitar player for Elvis (and others), Scottie Moore, was a major influence on the British.
The Animals came to America in October, 1964, through the portal used by many British bands, The Ed Sullivan Show, after which they performed in several theaters around New York City. Their repertoire was almost entirely cover versions of American rhythm and blues songs. The American song factory known as the Brill Building provided a large portion of their recorded catalog. American influence continued even as the British Invasion was at its peak, with several bands picking up new sounds as they absorbed American radio and culture.
24. American music continued to influence British bands during the British Invasion
Rolling Stones front man and singer Mick Jagger adapted the stage presence and dance moves of American performer James Brown, having already begun using the inflections of black bluesmen in his band’s cover versions of their songs. John Lennon absorbed the influences of Bob Dylan, both in his lyrics and in his guitar playing on some of his own songs. The Motown sound emerged during 1964; both the Temptations and the Four Tops reached the top twenty that year, as did the Supremes. The Rolling Stones recorded at Chess Studios in Chicago. Three of the five songs recorded there were by American artists, including Chuck Berry’s Around and Around.
The British invasion changed radio playlists, and the American rock and roll from which it had sprung all but vanished from the airwaves. Some British bands even came to the United States sporting American names, such as the Nashville Teens, who had a hit with Tobacco Road in 1964. The song itself was an American blues song about life in North Carolina. The British Invasion was over for the most part in early 1967, and other new genres spun off from the rock and pop music it left behind, with the British bands continuing to influence those in America, and vice versa. It was an era which would never have happened had it not been for the reception of American rock and roll in Great Britain a decade earlier.
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