3. Even after the first assassination attempt Governor Lieutenant General Oskar Pitiorek did not provide extra security for the Archduke
Having served as a military commander in the Austro-Hungarian army, Oskar Pitiorek became the governor of Bosnia from 1911 to 1914. Born in Bad Bleiberg in 1853, Pitiorek joined the Austro-Hungarian general staff in 1879 and was appointed deputy chief by Emperor Franz Joseph in 1902.
Pitiorek invited Franz Ferdinand to watch his troops on maneuvers scheduled for 26 and 27 June 1914. He was to be responsible for the safety of Archduke Franz Ferdinand during the visit. While being taken to the to the city hall for the reception and speeches, Nedjelko Cabrinovic, a members of the Black Hand Serbian nationalist secret society threw a grenade at the Archduke’s car. If not for the driver who took an evasive action to speed from the scene, then the bomb would have hit the car.
After the scene, Pitiorek would have been wise to arrange for an extra security for the Archduke but worried about his own prestige, he resisted calling out the troops that had been on maneuvers in the rain for two days because they didn’t have presentable dress uniforms. What followed did not only cause the death of Franz Ferdinand and his wife but precipitated the outbreak of World War I.
2. The driver was never informed that the motorcade route had been changed.
Leopold Lojka was a professional chauffeur in the service of Franz. Born on 17 September 1886 in the town of Telč in southern Moravia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Leopold Lojka was a close friend of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. When Franz visited Sarajevo, Leopold Lojka was the chauffeur of the car at the point of his assassination.
At the start of his tour in Sarajevo, Franz Ferdinand visited the military barracks and inspected the local Imperial garrison. Shortly after leaving, a member of the Black Hand who was part of the assassination plan threw a grenade at his entourage. However, the driver managed to swerve out of the way, and the bomb bounced away, injuring several soldiers in the car behind. Franz changed his mind after the incident as he wanted to demonstrate that his family was in control of Sarajevo. He ordered the driver to change the route so he can visit the injured soldiers.
Unfortunately, Leopold Lojka did not fully understand his instructions and mistakenly took a wrong turn into Franz Josef Gasse. Realizing he was not familiar with the street, the driver decided to reverse. At this time, Gavrilo Princip who was also a member of the Black Hand gang was having a cup of tea after a failed assassination attempt by a member of his team. Luckily, he recognized Franz Ferdinand’s car as it was trying to pull out of the street. Not believing his luck Princip pulled out his gun and shot both Franz and his wife.
1. Assassinations weren’t something new to the Habsburg Royal Family
Interestingly, the Habsburg Royal Family members were targets of assassination attempts, and some were also assassinated. Franz Ferdinand was not the only member of the royal family to be killed by an assassin. In 1989, the longest serving Empress-consort of Austria, Elisabeth, was stabbed to death by an Italian anarchist named Luigi Lucheni. Earlier on, Lucheni had missed his chance to assassinate Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans, and swore to kill any member of the royalty he saw. Fortunately, Elisabeth had followed an invitation from the Rothschild family to Geneva, and as she left the hotel where she spent a night incognito, to hurry to the steamship “Genève,” she met her death. The event which was well covered in the coeval press was a shock and left the Austria-Hungarian public in deep mourning.
That’s not all! Emperor Franz Josef was also a subject of two failed assassination attempts, one particularly being on 18 February 1853, when János Libényi, a Hungarian nationalist tried to assassinate him.
With these kind of assassination attempts, one would probably agree that the Habsburg Royal Family knew they were always targets and had to be sensitive. In fact, both Franz Ferdinand and Empress Elisabeth were warned of their visits before their assassinations.