8. The Culper Ring was an immensely secretive and highly successful spy ring during the American War of Independence, acquiring vital intelligence from behind British lines
The Culper Ring was a spy ring formed at the command of General George Washington in the summer of 1778, during the British occupation of New York City in the American Revolutionary War, as a response to the need to penetrate the secure city and gain vital intelligence on the activities and movements of the British Army. Organized by Major Benjamin Tallmadge, the spies – notably Abraham Woodhull and Robert Townsend – ferried information out of New York City and the surrounding region to the Continental Army at great risk to themselves and their families.
The Culper Ring served as the source of countless valuable pieces of information, without which it is arguable that the British would have emerged victorious in the conflict. Among the important intelligence acquired was: – The British planned a surprise attack on newly arrived French forces under Lieutenant General Rochambeau at Newport, Rhode Island. – The British planned to counterfeit American currency on genuine press paper. – Major General William Tryon’s raid in Connecticut in July 1779 was a diversionary tactic in the attempt to compel Washington to divide his forces – General Benedict Arnold was plotting with Head of the British Secret Service Major John Andre to surrender the fort at West Point. It has also been suggested that the Culper Ring exposed and thwarted an attempt on Washington’s own life, but this is unverified.
7. The Golden Buddha of Thailand was coated in plaster to protect it from being stolen during the fall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, hiding in public view for 200 years before revealing itself again to the world
The Golden Buddha, known officially as Phra Phuttha Maha Suwana Patimakon, is a 5.5-ton statue located in the temple of Wat Traimit, Bangkok, Thailand. Measuring 3.91 meters tall, 3.1 meters in width, and capable of being disassembled into nine separate pieces, the huge representation of Siddhartha Gautama is believed to have been fashioned at some time in the 13th-14th centuries. Whilst it is possible the style of the Sukhothai Dynasty might have been reproduced at a later date, historical evidence places the latest possible creation of the Golden Buddha circa 1750. At least 40% of the body of the statue is pure gold, from the chin to forehead 80%, and the hair and topknot, weighing an immense 45 kilograms, is 99% in purity; consequently, the modern-day cash value of the total gold of the statue surpasses $200 million.
Believed to have been transported from Sukhothai to the Ayutthaya Kingdom in approximately 1403, at some point prior to the destruction of the Ayutthaya Kingdom by Burma in 1767, the statue was coated in a thick layer of stucco and pieces of colored glass. As a result, the Golden Buddha was protected by its camouflage, remaining discarded among the ruins for the next fifty years. In 1805, with the establishment of Bangkok as the new capital city of the Kingdom of Thailand and the construction of several new temples, King Rama I ordered old images of the Buddha be collected and distributed. During the reign of Rama III (r. 1824-1851), the statue, still carrying its secret, was fitted as the foremost icon in the temple of Wat Chotanaram in Bangkok, before being moved to Wat Traimit in 1935 and housed under a tin roof due to lack of space. Finally, in 1954, after a new building was constructed to specially house the giant statue, as the Buddha was being transported it was accidentally dropped and a chunk of plaster was chipped away to reveal the gold underneath; today, with the plaster fully removed, the gold statue, after 200 years in hiding, is safely enjoyed by the Thai people once more.
6. The famed lovers Antony and Cleopatra were immortalized by Shakespeare, but their precise resting places remain a mystery to archaeologists
Cleopatra VII Philopator was the companion of Julius Caesar, wife of Mark Antony, and the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Siding with the Second Triumvirate during the Liberators’ Civil War (43-42 BCE) in the aftermath of the assassination of Julius Caesar, Cleopatra began an affair with Mark Antony. This affair would produce three children – Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, and Ptolemy Philadelphus – and culminate in the divorce of Antony from the sister of Octavian.
This insult, combined with naming their children as future rulers, precipitated the Final War of the Roman Republic, which Octavian won decisively. Following the defeat of their naval fleet at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, Egypt was invaded and within a year, defeat and capture for Antony and Cleopatra was imminent. After learning of the suicide of Antony, Cleopatra, fearing a public humiliation and imprisonment, also took her own life. It is popularly believed that the method of her suicide was the bite of a venomous asp. According to the historians Plutarch and Suetonius, in a surprisingly generous act Augustus permitted the deceased lovers to be buried together. Augustus also allowed their children to live, in contrast to the fate of Cleopatra’s other child from her relationship with Julius Caesar, Caesarion. Despite this magnanimity in victory, the location tomb of Antony and Cleopatra has been kept a secret for almost two thousand years; it is unclear whether this was by design and intent or mere coincidence.
5. The Original Recipe for Kentucky Fried Chicken, designed by Harland Sanders, remains a secret, sealed in a vault in Louisville, along with vials of spices
The KFC Original Recipe was designed in the 1930s, and perfected by July 1940, by Harland Sanders in response to the popularity of the fried chicken offered at his gas station in Corbin, Kentucky. He removed the gas pumps and transformed his business into a restaurant and motel in the late-1930s. Sanders transitioned through several methods and flavors, shifting from pan frying (which he found to be too slow) to deep fat frying. He thought deep frying produced dry chicken, so he finally settled on using a pressure cooker and his now world-famous recipe consisting of 11 herbs and spices.
Beginning to franchise his chicken in the 1950s under the brand name “Kentucky Fried Chicken”, Sanders was fearful that other food outlets might copy his creation. Consequently, KFC instituted a strict policy of secrecy regarding the Original Recipe. Among the precautions taken was the division of the production of the recipe between multiple manufacturers and suppliers. Half was produced by Griffith Laboratories before being given to McCormick who provided the other half. Furthermore, the company refused to patent their creation, which would require the detailed identification of ingredients and limit ownership to an expiration date, instead opting for total secrecy to protect their brand. Today, a copy of the recipe is sealed inside a high-security safe at the KFC headquarters in Louisville, along with eleven vials containing the necessary herbs and spices.
4. The identity of Jack the Ripper, the serial killer of Whitechapel, remains a secret to this day despite more than a century of investigation
Jack the Ripper, also known as the Whitechapel Murderer or Leather Apron, was an unidentified serial killer responsible for the murders of at least five women in the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. The victims, all female prostitutes, were found murdered, with their throats cut – in addition to facial, abdominal, and genital-area mutilation, and the posthumous removal of internal organs. Due to the latter activity, it became widely assumed that the killer possessed a detailed anatomical knowledge and possibly surgical training. It is presumed the murders stopped as a result of the killer’s death, incarceration, or emigration, but this is merely conjecture as the true identity remains unknown to this day.
In total, more than 100 suspects have been suggested as potential “Rippers”, among which in modern “Ripperology” include barrister Montague John Druitt, barbers Seweryn Antonowicz Kłosowski and Aaron Kosminski, the latter of which was admitted to Colney Hatch Lunatic Asylum in 1891, and boot-maker John Pizer. Contemporaneous speculation, in contrast, focused on an entirely different set of suspects ranging from Thomas Hayne Cutbush, a medical student institutionalized in 1891 after suffering syphilitic-induced delusions, and Frederick Bailey Deeming, who would emigrate to Australia in 1891 after murdering his entire family and later claimed in a prison-penned book prior to his hanging to be the Ripper.
3. Franklin Roosevelt’s paralysis was so secret that even the heads of state of Europe were not aware of his condition
Franklin D. Roosevelt, the future 32nd President of the United States, contracted a paralytic illness in 1921 at the age of just 39 years old; debilitating symptoms soon followed, including bowel and bladder dysfunction, numbness, and permanent below-the-waist paralysis. Diagnosed with poliomyelitis, it is today commonly believed that his symptoms were more in line with the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite being unable to stand or walk without support, Roosevelt refused to allow his disability to impede his life or career, learning throughout the 1920s to walk short distances with the aid of heavy steel braces which locked at the knees, a cane for support, and using his torso to build forward momentum. As a result of this momentous personal struggle, Roosevelt successfully became America’s first disabled President without widespread public knowledge of his condition.
Although he used a wheelchair in private, Roosevelt remained careful to ensure the public did not see their commander-in-chief in such a state. When appearing in public, Roosevelt would often be flanked by aides for support, whilst during major speaking engagements a sturdy lectern would be placed on the stage. Roosevelt would grip the lectern forcefully for support, rendering him unable to use hand gestures and consequently developed his iconic head movements to apply emphasis. Arrivals by car were carefully choreographed, commonly parked in a secluded garage to allow for assistance entering and exiting the vehicle, or driven onto a ramp to ease his movements. If steps were present, they would be covered with a ramp and railings fitted on either side. Roosevelt also made extensive use of Track 61 – a private railway platform located beneath the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City – with the presidential railroad car always appearing at the rear and preferably arriving in a secluded section of a railway yard.
2. Despite hundreds of years of investigation, the location of the lost island of Atlantis, if it ever existed, remains a secret
Atlantis is a fictional island described in the works of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, allegorically serving as a commentary on the hubris of nations, for which shortcoming the island nation fell out of favor with the Gods and was sunk beneath the Atlantic Ocean. Although it is agreed upon that the story of Atlantic offered by Plato is unquestionably fictitious, his account of an island that sunk beneath the waves has spawned considerable speculation that the lost landmass might have actually historically existed. Plato was known to borrow many of his allegories from older storytelling traditions, increasing the likelihood that Atlantis was founded in truth.
Inspired by Ignatius Donnelly’s Atlantis: the Antediluvian World (1882), who believed that many ancient civilizations were descended from a lost central source destroyed during the biblical Great Flood, subsequent investigation and inquiry have produced several hypotheses concerning the fate and location of the island of Atlantis. The majority of these proposed sites are situated in the Mediterranean Sea, with the disappearance of Atlantis revolving around the known Thera eruption that occurred in either the 17th or 16th century BCE. This eruption generated a gigantic tsunami believed to have devastated the Minoan civilization located on the island of Crete, with Atlantis considered to potentially have been another victim of this natural disaster.
1. Despite his international fame, how Tutankhamun actually died at the young age of only 18 remains a mystery
Tutankhamun was an Egyptian Pharaoh belonging to the 18th dynasty, born in 1341 BCE and reigning during the New Kingdom period between 1332-1323. Discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter, the intact condition of his tomb immediately ignited worldwide interest in the young pharaoh. Despite a century of scientific and archaeological inquiry, little is known concerning the reign of the teenager. Provoking the most debate has been speculation regarding the death of the 18-year-old pharaoh, with no records surviving concerning Tutankhamun’s passing. Given the condition of the tomb, with microbiologist Ralph Mitchell suggesting that the paint on the walls indicate that the deceased king was entombed prior to the walls drying, it is widely assumed that the young monarch died suddenly and unexpectedly prior to his crypt being completed.
Whilst some claim that Tutankhamun was assassinated, others assert that his death was accidental. Modern medical examination of Tutankhamun’s remains highlight a compound leg fracture inflicted shortly before his death, leading to speculation that the injury developed a fatal infection. Medical analysis has also indicated the presence of malaria and Köhler disease II, either of which might have played a role in his demise. Other theories highlight evidence of sickle cell disease, a partially cleft palate, in addition to a host of other congenital defects and commonplace illnesses of the day. Adding to these already myriad speculations, in March 2018 a new proposal suggested that tomb images depict Tutankhamun leading an army to war in Syria whereupon he may have fallen in battle.
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