Antoine Lavoisier was an essential French chemist who helped move science from being qualitative to be more quantitative and empirical. He showed the role of oxygen in combustion and even named the elements of oxygen and hydrogen. He wrote out a comprehensive list of elements, which helped lead to the modern periodic table, and worked out the system of chemical nomenclature. His work was so foundational that he is considered to be the father of modern chemistry.
Unfortunately, Robespierre was more concerned with consolidating his power than with the role of French scientists. Lavoisier was a leader of the Femme Generale, which was a particularly hated aspect of the monarchy. Along with other former members of the Femme Generale, he came under question for his suspected role in adding water to tobacco to increase its weight before selling it and of defrauding the state of funds. He was convicted; despite efforts to save his life because of his role as a scientist, the judge allegedly said that France does not need scientists but rather needs swift justice.
Lavoisier was later exonerated, and his personal effects were brought to his wife, complete with a note that said, “To the widow of Lavoisier, who was falsely convicted.”
Camille Desmoulins was trained as a lawyer but had difficulty establishing his own career in Paris. When King Louis XVI summoned the Estates General, he became so enthused that he dedicated the rest of his career, and his life, to the impending revolution. When the king dismissed the finance minister, who was popular with the people, Camille was so passionate that he jumped onto a table in a café and delivered a call to arms against the military forces that were amassing in Paris. Riots quickly spread throughout Paris.
Camille went on to publish pamphlets calling for a republican government that would represent the will of the people and celebrating the political violence that was coming to define the revolution. One of the more radical revolutionaries, he also publicly slandered Jean Pierre Brissot as a cheater who had betrayed the causes of the revolution.
His views were very much aligned with those of Georges Danton, whom he actually served under at one point. Like Danton, he tried to apply moderation to the Revolutionary Tribunal when he saw that the Reign of Terror was turning into an orgy of bloodshed. He was tried with Danton in a tribunal that had political rather than criminal overtones and denied any legal defense. Camille was guillotined with Danton.
Andre Chenier was one of the more tragic figures of the revolution, being a foreign-born poet who lived in France and died three days before the Reign of Terror came to an end. He was born to a French father and Greek mother in Constantinople, now Istanbul, Turkey. After a short stint in the French military, he dedicated himself to the writing of poetry in the neoclassical style. He frequently traveled throughout Europe and was enabled to write and study poetry without interruption from his family, who supported his ventures. Many of his poems dealt with philosophical ideals of the Enlightenment, such as the place of man in the universe.
Following the shocking events of 1789 that gave way to the revolution, Chenier’s younger brother became widely published as a pamphleteer and political activist. However, Andre remained a moderate who believed that, following the downfall of the monarchy, France simply needed to impose a new rule of law. He went on to write political satires about the Reign of Terror. Robespierre, who by July of 1794 was in a precarious position, personally had him sentenced to death for opposition to the revolution. Shortly after that, Robespierre himself was arrested and executed.
Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville was widely considered to be one of the most sinister figures of the revolution, particularly of the Reign of Terror. Having been trained in law, he was the public prosecutor, appointed by the Revolutionary Tribunal. However, many considered him to have carried out his duties in such a way that they only carried with them the appearance of legality when he was actually executing opponents to a political regime. As such, there was little need to establish actual guilt in the people that he sent to the guillotine.
Towards the end of his career (and life), he prosecuted a group of nuns, who had allegedly acted as fanatics against the state and attempted to foment rebellion and civil war by providing housing to enemies of the revolution. He labeled them criminal assassins, and the judge duly sentenced all of them, as well as those whom they had sheltered. One of the last people that he prosecuted was Robespierre himself, of whom he had previously been an ardent supporter.
When the Thermidorian Reaction began, following the fall of Robespierre, Fouquier-Tinville was tried with other former members of the Revolutionary Tribunal. They were found guilty and executed in May of 1795.
If Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville was one of the most sinister figures of the revolution, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just was the public face of the Reign of Terror. He rose through the ranks of the National Convention and became personal friends with Robespierre. He wrote the draft of the French Constitution of 1793, the second constitution of the revolution (the first having been written in 1791) that did away with the moderate reforms that had previously been promised.
When the revolution began, de Saint-Just wrote prolifically on social and political theories, with a moralizing tone, in pamphlets and other mediums. He was also impassioned rhetoric, who often moved audiences to tears regarding the principles of the revolution and his dedication to it.
By the time he drafted the 1793 constitution, martial law had effectively been established throughout France. This rule probably suited de Saint-Just just fine, as he was a military leader who was noted for his strict discipline and ruthless zeal for the revolution. When he returned from the war with Austria in 1794, he found that Robespierre had lost much of his power. Still, he continued to give impassioned speeches to the National Convention, even when the threat of physical violence was imminent. He was arrested soon after his return and executed with Robespierre.
Georges Couthon was a leading revolutionary who worked side-by-side with Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. He was a member of the radical Jacobin faction and, as a member of the National Convention, voted in favor of the execution of the king. He was also a member of the committee that, with Louis de Saint-Just, wrote a new constitution that legitimated the Reign of Terror. He advocated fiercely for all “enemies of the revolution” to be executed and helped spearhead the moves that led to the deaths of members of more moderate groups, such as the Girondins. He also pushed forward legislation that helped secure the Reign of Terror by ensuring that anyone who resisted the revolution could be swiftly executed.
In July 1794, the Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt against the Reign of Terror. Weary of the excessive executions (as many as 2% of the French people were arrested for supposedly being enemies of the revolution, and 17,000 were guillotined), the reaction led to the arrest of Robespierre, de Saint-Just, and Couthon, amongst other leaders of the Terror. Couthon was executed at the guillotine with the leader that he had so ardently supported. He was one of the last people to die at France’s national razor.
Jacques Cazotte was one of the more interesting figures to be executed in the revolution, and his story illustrates just how far-reaching Madame Guillotine’s fingers were. He was not a politician or otherwise affiliated with the revolution; he was an author and translator who wrote children’s books and translated works by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire. Some of his works had a mystical element and dealt with supernatural beings, like the devil.
Around 1775, Cazotte employed the teachings of the infamous Illuminati, a primarily misunderstood band of intellectuals and Enlightenment thinkers. As a mystic, though, he embraced a more spiritual side of the group’s teachings and believed himself to be a prophet. In fact, one writer, Jean-Francois de la Harpe, claimed that Cazotte had uncannily prophesied even the most molecular events of the revolution.
During the revolution, Cazotte became a Martinist, a member of an esoteric group that focused on a spiritual return to the divine source through a process of illumination or reintegration. He also considered himself to be a monarchist, albeit a mystical one and wrote letters that were seen as antithetical to the revolution. He was arrested in August 1792 and sent to die at the guillotine.
Today, the French Revolution stands as a pivotal point in Western history, when ideals of democracy and Enlightenment quickly gave way to barbarism and frenzied killing. However, it did achieve many things, including the end of the divine right of kings, the French monarchy, and proof that people could successfully rebel against a government that they deemed to be tyrannical.
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