9. America’s Most Infamous Traitor Was Once a Brilliant General in America’s Cause
American Revolutionary War General Benedict Arnold (1741 – 1801) is the United States’ most infamous traitor. His name has become an epithet, synonymous with treason and betrayal. At one point, though, he had been a leading patriot in the fight against the British, and was perhaps the most capable combat leader on the rebels’ side. Then a combination of resentments over slights, coupled with financial distress, led him to sell out to the enemy. Before he turned traitor, Arnold had provided valuable service to the American side, and played a key role early in the war in the capture of Fort Ticonderoga. He then led an expedition through extremely rough terrain in an attempt to capture Quebec.
The Quebec Expedition failed in its ultimate aim, but General Arnold exhibited remarkable leadership in getting his men to the outskirts of Quebec. In 1776, an enterprising Arnold constructed a fleet from scratch at Lake Champlain, which he used to defeat a vastly superior British fleet. While lionized as a hero by the public, his successes, rash courage, and driving style aroused the jealousy and resentment of other officers, who backbit and schemed against Arnold. When Congress created five new major generals in 1777, Arnold was stung when he was bypassed in favor of some of his juniors. It took George Washington’s personal entreaties to prevent Arnold’s resignation.
Benedict Arnold stuck around long enough to repel a British attack in Connecticut, and was finally promoted to major general. However, his seniority was not restored – another slight that would gnaw at him. He again sought to resign, but was again prevailed upon to remain. He performed brilliantly in halting the British advance into upstate New York in 1777, which culminated in the British surrender at Saratoga, where Arnold fought courageously and was severely injured. Crippled by his wounds, he was put in charge of Philadelphia, where he began to socialize with British loyalist families. He also took to extravagant living, which he financed with questionable dealings that led to a scandal. While in Philadelphia, he met and married a much younger woman of loyalist sympathies and spendthrift habits that soon put Arnold deep in debt.
Between resentments and financial difficulties, Arnold secretly approached the British to offer his services. He was placed in charge of fortifications at West Point on the Hudson River, upstream from British-occupied New York City and barring them from sailing upriver. Arnold plotted to sell plans of the fortifications to the enemy and contrived to deliver them into British hands for Â£20,000. However, his British contact was captured, along with documents incriminating Arnold. He fled just in time to evade arrest. He was made a brigadier general in the British Army, and led soldiers against the American side. The British never fully warmed to him, however, and after the war, he was unable to secure a regular commission. He pursued a variety of ventures, including privateering and land speculation in Canada, before he finally settled in London, where he died in 1801.
7. A General More Remembered for His Unfortunate Last Words Instead of His Stellar Record
John Sedgwick (1813 – 1864) was born into a family of Revolutionary War veterans, including one grandfather who had served as a general alongside George Washington. Sedgwick became a respected and competent Union general and corps commander in the Civil War. His kindliness and paternal affection, combined with concern for his soldiers’ well-being, won him the love of his men and the nickname “Uncle John”. Unfortunately, he is more widely remembered for his death and ironic last words, than for any of his life accomplishments or the good service he gave his country in a long military career.
Sedgwick graduated from West Point in 1837, and was commissioned as an artillery officer. In the following decades, he served ably in the US Army, and was still in uniform when the Civil War broke out in April, 1861. He was given a cavalry regiment, and by August, 1861, was promoted to command his own brigade in the Army of the Potomac. The following February, he was put in charge of his own division. He fought bravely in the Peninsula Campaign, and was twice wounded during the Seven Days Battles.
At the Battle of Antietam, General Sedgwick was sent on a poorly planned charge. His division was shot to pieces, lost 2200 men, and he was hit by three bullets. When he recovered and returned to duty, he was promoted to command his own corps. He won early success with his VI Corps during the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863, but the battle ended in defeat. In the Overland Campaign in 1864, Sedgwick led his corps in the Battle of the Wilderness. On May 9th, 1864, at the start of the Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, he was positioning his artillery, when his troops came under sniper fire and began to get jittery.
The avuncular Sedgwick chided his men for their timidity under single bullets, and wondered how they would react when they confronted massed Confederates on the firing line, and faced full volleys. The men were chagrined, but continued to flinch. So Uncle John Sedgwick continued: “Why are you dodging like this? They couldn’t hit an elephant at this dista…“, at which point his pep speech was interrupted by a sniper bullet that hit him in the face. It struck beneath his left eye, killed him instantly and turned him into the highest-ranking Union battlefield death of the Civil War.
5. The Patriots’ Low Point in the American Revolution
Washington Crossing the Delaware, painted by German -American artist Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze in 1851, is one of the most iconic images of the American Revolution. It depicts General George Washington and a flotilla of Patriots in boats crossing the Delaware River on the night of December 25 – 26, 1776, for a surprise attack against enemy forces. The portrayal of Washington standing at the boat’s prow, staring determinedly at the enemy shore, while flanked by other Patriot-laden boats, captured imaginations then and since The event was dramatic and worthy of commemoration.
As 1776 drew to a close, the war and the Americans’ armed bid for independence had not been going well for Washington and his Revolutionary forces. The Patriots had been outgeneralled, outfought, and soundly drubbed. Most notably in New York City, where they had only avoided annihilation via a near-miraculous escape. Morale was low, so Washington planned a daring raid to score a quick victory and restore some confidence to the Revolutionary cause. From his base in Pennsylvania, he would cross the nearly frozen Delaware River, to suddenly descend upon and destroy Hessian forces on the opposite bank, in Trenton, New Jersey.
The portrayal of George Washington in Washington Crossing the Delaware is true to the essence of what is known of the man. His style was heavy on projecting an aura of detached dignity and a wall of formality that separated him from subordinates. It was not true, however, to Washington’s actual conduct during the crossing: it was one of the rare occasions when the general let down the formality, and cracked jokes. Washington’s cold, hungry, and demoralized trooped clambered into boats on a frigid winter night, made even more miserable by driving sleet. When it was Washington’s turn to get into a boat, he looked at Henry Knox, his overweight artillery chief, and said: “Shift your fat ass, Harry! But don’t swamp the damn boat!”
All things considered, it was not a comedy gem. But any levity from George Washington in public, especially on such a serious occasion, was highly unusual. At first, the men were stunned, and stood around looking at each other in shocked disbelief. Then somebody chuckled, and before long, contagious laughter rippled throughout the entire force, as Washington’s comment was spread and repeated. With their spirits lifted, the Revolutionaries crossed the river, and fell upon the enemy in Trenton, where they killed, wounded, and captured about a thousand men, for the loss of only two dead and five wounded Americans.
Just about all American presidents have been dog people. Even the ones who might not have been that fond of dogs have often found it convenient to keep a mutt or two in the White House for appearances’ sake, and to project a wholesome image. However, few American presidents were as fond of Man’s Best Friends as was George Washington. America’s first president was a big-time dog lover. During his lifetime, he had dogs from just about every group recognized by the American Kennel Club today.
Greyhounds, French hounds, spaniels, terriers, Newfoundlands, and Briards were just some of the breeds kept by Washington at one time or another. He maintained a pack of fox hunting hounds in a well-kept kennel that had a spring running through it to supply the dogs with fresh water. He personally inspected it twice a day, every morning and evening, when he dropped by to check on his hounds. As seen below, Washington’s love of dogs even led him to call an unexpected truce during the Revolutionary War, in order to return a lost dog to its owner: an enemy general.
George Washington was a great man and a great leader, but only a so-so general who lost more battles than he won. Fortunately for him, the Patriots did not need to outright win the War of Independence on the battlefield, but simply continue the fight until the British finally grew tired and gave up. Even more fortunately for General Washington, the battles he won included the American Revolution’s final and most important battle: the Siege of Yorktown, which ended with the surrender of a British army.
The fights he lost included the Battle of Germantown, near Philadelphia, in which a British army led by Sir William Howe defeated Washington and his forces on October 4th, 1777. After the loss, the retreating Americans discovered that their ranks included an unexpected addition: an unknown but clearly well-kept terrier. When they inspected the dog’s collar, the Americans discovered that it belonged to Sir William Howe. The British commander’s dog had wandered into the battlefield, and in the chaos and confusion attached itself to the Americans. The Patriots wanted to keep it in order to taunt the British, but Washington was too classy to keep another man’s dog.
1. A Touching and Honorable Moment In the Midst of War
George Washington bucked his men and resisted their calls to keep Sir William Howe’s prized terrier. Instead, he sent a messenger under a white flag of truce, across the lines to the British commander. The messenger delivered the dog to Sir William, along with a note that read in relevant part: “General Washington’s compliments to General Howe. He does himself the pleasure to return to him a dog, which accidentally fell into his hands, and by the inscription on the Collar appears to belong to General Howe“.
Howe was impressed by the unexpected gesture from his enemy. The British commander expressed his gratitude to Washington, and described the incident as “the honorable act of a fine gentleman“. The touching episode did not end the war, which continued unabated for years. Nor did it end Howe’s participation in the conflict. However, although he continued to fight and win battles against the Americans, Sir William Howe did so with less enthusiasm than he had exhibited before Washington interrupted the war to return an enemy’s dog.
Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading