Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. These laws mandated separation between races in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederacy.
The laws were put into place, alleging “separate but equal” status for African Americans in public schools, public places such as restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains and public transportation. President Woodrow Wilson initiated the segregation of federal workplaces in 1913.
Facilities for African Americans were consistently inferior to those which were available to white Americans.
The segregation of public schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in the 1954 case, Brown v. Board of Education. In some states, it took years to implement the integration and it was met with severe resistance.