40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God

Trista - March 17, 2019

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Depictions of Shiva are often replete with symbolism. Blogspot.

27. Shiva Wears a Cobra Necklace

The cobra necklace represents several things. One is his strength and potency as a supreme god; he is invincible and immortal. Another is that the snake periodically sheds its skin so that it can grow a new one, symbolizing the death and rebirth that Shiva gives. A third reason for the cobra necklace is that it shows Shiva’s power over even the most dangerous creatures on the earth.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
A Shiva devotee with vibhuti. Blogspot.

26. He Has Lines on His Forehead Known as “Vibhuti”

Covering Shiva’s third eye is three horizontal white lines that are drawn across his forehead in ash. They represent his wealth, power, and pervasiveness. Faithful Hindus often draw the vibhuti lines on their own foreheads to indicate their devotion and identification with Shiva. These lines serve as personal lingams; a lingam is an object that symbolizes Shiva without using anthropomorphic (human) features.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Shiva’s trident is known as a trishula. Vanishing Tattoo.

25. Shiva Carries a Trident

Known as a “trishula” in Hinduism, Shiva’s trident is a significant weapon that he has always possessed. He used it to cut the head off of the elephant-headed god, Ganesha. Each of the points has a unique meaning that is critical to Hindu belief, such as past, present, and future; or creation, maintenance, and destruction. Shiva’s Trishula serves both as a weapon and as an instrument of creation. It remains a powerful symbol among Hindu communities; in Nepal, it is a symbol of the communist party.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Another picture of Shiva meditating with animals. Blogspot.

24. He is Usually Tranquil and in the Lotus Position

Despite Shiva’s intense and sometimes violent personality, he is often depicted as a meditating yogi, serene and with his legs in the lotus position. This image is usually because his wife, Parvati, has such a calming influence on him that he reverts to a calmer, more tranquil state of self-reflection and meditation. Though other gods may be pictured as lavish and hedonistic, Shiva – still the destroyer – is austere and ascetic.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
A bronze Nataraja statue. Exotic India.

23. But Sometimes, Shiva is Dancing in a Fiery Ring

One of the best examples of Indian art is that of the Nataraja, in which Shiva is depicted dancing in the middle of a fiery ring while trampling underfoot a demon. In a Nataraja depiction, he typically holds fire in his left hand and a snake in his right, showing his control over even the most violent and sinister forces. He is dancing so energetically that his hair, which is usually matted from an ascetic lifestyle, is whirled around his head like a fan.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Hanuman is an avatar of Shiva. Astrogems.com.

22. Shiva Has Multiple Incarnations

Some Hindus believe that Shiva has come to earth multiple times by being incarnated as a god-like person, known as an avatar. One of those avatars is Hanuman, the monkey-god who helps Rama – Vishnu’s avatar – in the Ramayana. However, not all worshipers of Shiva have adopted the idea of him having avatars. Devotees of Vishnu look to the god for salvation and therefore recognize the need of avatars to show them the way. Devotees of Shiva, however, look for their own salvation within themselves.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Kali Maa Standing on Lord Shiva. Pinterest.

21. Parvati Also Has Multiple Incarnations

Parvati is one of many avatars of Devi, the supreme goddess in Hinduism. One of those avatars is Kali, a demon-like monster with an insatiable appetite for destruction. Kali is an essential aspect of Shiva worship; depictions of her often show her trampling him. She also has cults of followers devoted to her, particularly the Kali Kula sect and groups in West Bengal. In addition to being a goddess in her own right, Kali is often viewed as a concept of free female energy.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Rudra Tandava: A dancer depicting Shiva kicking Yama, the god of Death. Sri Devi Nrithyalaya/ Wikimedia Commons.

20. Shiva’s Dances Destroy and Recreate the Universe

The Tandav is a cosmic dance of death that destroys the universe, which Shiva performs at the end of each age. Originally Rudra performed a tandav, which was violent, but Shiva’s is depicted as rigorous and joyful. Parvati responds with a dance known as the laysa. After the present universe is destroyed, Shiva recreates it. In addition to cosmic destruction, the tandav also represents the cyclical nature of birth, death, and rebirth.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Sati, Shiva’s first wife, died of self-immolation. Blogspot.

19. Parvati is an Incarnation of Shiva’s Lost Wife, Sati

According to Hindu legend, Shiva was married to Sati, also an avatar of Devi, against the wishes of her father. One day her father held a prayer ceremony, to which he invited all of the gods except for Shiva. Out of anger at her father’s rejection of her husband, Sati jumped onto the fire burning at the ceremony. Shiva was overwhelmed with grief until she was re-incarnated as Parvati.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
The legend of Sati’s death sparked a practice of widows being forced to commit suicide. Blogspot.

18. The Hindu Practice of Sati Derives From Sati’s Legend

Sati is a practice in which a widowed woman is expected to cast herself onto the funeral pyre of her deceased husband, thereby dying alongside him. She symbolically dies of grief, just like Sati in the legend. The practice probably derives from the story of Sati, Shiva’s previous wife. It is now outlawed, but there are still accounts of sati happening, particularly in more remote villages.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
The Ganges River. Edristi.in.

17. The Ganges River Flowers Through Shiva’s Hair

The Mahabharata and Ramayana tell of a sage whose deep meditation is disturbed by the 60,000 sons of King Sagara. In his anger, he reduces all of them to ash with his fiery gaze and banishes them to the netherworld. One of the descendants of these sons is anxious to bring them back, so he calls on the goddess Ganga to come to earth and restore them. Because the fall from her home on the Milky Way would shatter the planet, she broke her fall in the tangled knots of Shiva’s matted hair.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Shiva with Parvati and their son, Ganesha. shiva.redzambala.com.

16. Worship of Shiva is Known as Shaivism

The majority of Hindus see Brahma as the supreme god, Vishnu as a lesser god, and Shiva as third in the triumvirate. However, some devotees of Shiva, known as Shaivists, see him as the supreme god. Aside from Shaivism being in itself an example of the diversity within Hinduism, there exists within Shaivism numerous different sects and beliefs.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Another statue of the Hindu god, Shiva. Agamayoga.

15. Shaivism Has Merged With Buddhism in Some Places

On the Indonesian island of Java, before the arrival of Islam, people viewed Buddhism and Shaivism as distinct but very close religions. By the Medieval era, devotees regarded Buddha and Shiva as the same god, along with Vishnu. Today on Bali, a predominantly Hindu island in Indonesia, the faithful believe that Shiva is the younger brother of Buddha. In pre-Islamic Iran, the Zoroastrian wind god had an appearance that strongly resembled that of Shiva.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
An image of Shiva with the trident, Cobra necklace, and other attributes. Budayabhaaskar.

14. Some Devotees View Him as a Guru

In Hindu thought, a guru is more than a gifted teacher; he or she is someone who is a master of wisdom who dispels darkness and can point people towards the light. Many Indonesian Hindus refer to Shiva as “Batara Guru,” meaning “noble guru.” As another example of how the Shiva figure is an amalgamation of other deities, Batara Guru has special characteristics in addition to those that he has in India.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Daikokuten is a Shiva figure in Shintoism. Wikimedia Commons/ Public Domain.

13. Shiva is Also Found in Shinto Belief

Shintoism, along with Buddhism, is one of the major religions of Japan; in fact, many Japanese people are both Buddhist and Shinto, either simultaneously or at different parts of their lives. One of the Shinto gods is known as Okuninushi, who rules the unseen world of magic and spirits. The Buddhist version of Shiva merged with Okuninushi to create the god Daikokuten, the god of wealth and the household.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Mount Kailasa in modern-day Tibet. dham-yatra.com.

12. He Lives on Mount Kailasa

Mount Kailasa, also known as Mount Kailash, is in the Tibetan region of the Himalayas. Hindus believe that it is the home of the gods, similar to Mount Olympus in Greek mythology. The Karnali River, which flows into the Ganges, originates on Mount Kailasa. On top of the mountain, Shiva and Parvati reside in a state of perpetual meditation.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
The 10th century five headed Shiva in Sadashiva, Cambodia. Mark B. Schlemmer/ Met Museum/ Wikimedia Commons.

11. Shiva’s Sacred Number is Five

Hindus believe that Shiva’s body is composed of five different mantras, the most important of which has five syllables. These mantras each form one of Shiva’s five faces and are associated with the five perceptual organs, the five senses, and the five action organs. Additionally, some Hindu theologians view him as one aspect of the fivefold nature of Brahma.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
A large statue of Shiva for celebrating Shivaratri. guyanatimesgy.com.

10. His Festival Occurs Every Month

Every lunar month, on the 13th night into the 14th day, is a festival dedicated to Shiva known as Shivaratri. “Shivaratri” literally means “night of Shiva,” and the festival falls on the darkest night of the lunar calendar to honor the destruction and recreation that Shiva brings. The faithful commemorate the night by chanting mantras, visiting temples, and performing rituals known as pujas.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Shiva pushes back the darkness on Shivaratri. YouTube.

9. His Most Important Festival Occurs in Winter

Maha Shivaratri, which occurs in February or March (depending on the lunar calendar), celebrates the marriage of Shiva and Parvati. “Maha Shivaratri” means “the great night of Shiva.” Rather than engaging in hedonistic celebrations, faithful devotees stay awake the entire night praying, trying to purify themselves, and meditating. The goal is to overcome darkness and find inner light through Shiva.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
The statue of Shiva as Nataraja at CERN in Geneva. Kenneth Lu/ Wikimedia Commons.

8. A Statue of Shiva is at CERN

CERN, located in Geneva, is home to the most expensive science project in history, the Large Hadron Collider. In 2004, the Indian government gifted the institution with a Nataraja statue of Shiva dancing the Tandava dance in a ring of fire. The figure is seen as symbolic of the union between modern physics, ancient mythology, and religious art, all of which converge at CERN.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
An image of Shakti. The Mother House of the Goddess.

7. Shiva is Often Worshiped Alongside Shakti

Shakti is a goddess who represents the cosmic energy that moves through the entire universe. Hindus often view her as the “Great Divine Mother” and see her as the personification of feminine energy. Shakti sects worship her as the supreme being, while others view her as the divine energy that flows through Shiva and as Parvati herself. Some see Parvati as one of Shakti’s avatars.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Another image of Shiva meditating. Hindisoch.com.

6. Shiva is Sometimes Depicted With Many Arms

Shiva is frequently shown with only two arms, but he is sometimes depicted as having four, sometimes even more. The four limbs are believed to represent each of the cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west. Further, each of his upper two hands holds something symbolic. The upper right-hand holds an hour-glass drum to represent the beating rhythm of the cosmos, and the upper left-hand holds fire.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Shiva’s appearance often looks feminine. Blogspot.

5. Shiva Has Both Male and Female Features

Images of Shiva usually show him to have an androgynous, if not feminine, appearance, yet he is a male god. Sometimes, he is actually pictured as being split down the middle, one half being the male god Shiva, the other half being his wife, Parvati. While earlier beliefs about Shiva saw him as a rough-and-tumble he-man, Hindus now see him as neither male nor female. In fact, many Hindu gods are androgynous and neither classified as male nor female.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Ganesha is an elephant-headed god. Sathyasaibaba.

4. One of His Sons is Ganesha

The elephant-headed Ganesha is the Hindu god of success and destroyer of evil. As his father, Shiva, is the destroyer and creator, Ganesha is the god of beginnings and is often revered at ceremonies that commemorate something new. Though not generally considered as necessary as Shiva, Ganesha is one of the most widely-worshiped gods of the entire Hindu pantheon. He probably emerged around the second century CE, a few hundred years after Shiva came to be viewed as a god.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Kartikeya rides on a peacock. Raja Ravi Varma/ Wikimedia Commons.

3. Another of His Sons is Kartikeya

Like his brother Ganesha, Kartikeya is a destroyer of evil. He is also the god of war and victory. Surprisingly, Kartikeya appears in Hindu thought during the Vedic period, much earlier than Shiva even became a distinct figure. He rides on a peacock or rooster and carries a slew of weapons that he uses to conquer his enemies. He figures prominently throughout South Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia, and even as far as South Africa and Mauritius.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
A depiction of Ashoka Sundari, Shiva’s daughter. Templepurohit.com.

2. Shiva’s Daughter is Ashoka Sundari

Ashoka Sundari is less significant in Hinduism than Shiva, Parvati, Ganesha, or Kartikeya. According to Hindu legend, Parvati asked Shiva to take her to the most beautiful garden in the world. A tree in the garden could fulfill any wish; since both of her sons were grown, and she was now lonely, she asked for a daughter. The tree fulfilled her wish, and she gave birth to Ashoka Sundari. Her story is told in the Padma Purana.

40 Enlightening Facts About Shiva, the Hindu God
Shiva, a Hindu God. Research Hut.

1. People All Around the World Worship Him

Although Shiva is inextricably linked to Hinduism, people worship him far outside of India’s borders. Faithful devotees to Shiva can be found in large communities in Sri Lanka, throughout South Asia and into Indonesia, in Japan, and as far-flung as South Africa – even Guyana in South America. With mass immigration in the modern age, large Shaivistic communities are cropping up in countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. The qualities associated with him will probably continue to evolve as people across more considerable distances pay homage to him.

 

Where did we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

“Ramayana.” Wikipedia.

“Mahabharata.” Wikipedia.

“Shiva.” Wikipedia.

“Shiva.” BBC. August 24, 2009.

“Trishula.” Wikipedia.

“Nataraja.” Wikipedia.

“Tandava.” Wikipedia.

“Shaivism.” Wikipedia.

“Shakti.” Wikipedia.

“Ganesha, the Hindu God of Success,” by Subhamoy Das. Learn Religions. September 20, 2018.

“Kartikeya.” Wikipedia.

“Ashoka Sundari.” Wikipedia.

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