Medicine and Language
The English language was one of the biggest winners to come out of the Black Death. The literate monks who made copies of books worked in Latin, the language of the Church was Latin, but the vast majority of the lower classes knew no Latin. The deaths of the monks and the lack of Latin speakers meant national languages developed and became more prominent. Latin fell into decline and by 1362 English was declared the official language of the courts. By 1385, English was the language of instruction in schools. Without the Black Death and the decline of Latin, English would not have become the lingua franca of modern society.
Local universities also flourished as fear of long journeys and being exposed to the plague provided a reason to establish regional universities. Latin-speaking professors were also wiped out by the plague and were replaced by teachers from lower schools. The lower schools then employed teachers who used the language of the country or region, thus accelerating the decline of Latin.
Hospitals also changed during this period, prior to the Black Death hospitals were places where people were sent so as not to infect other people, they were never expected to leave alive. The hospital was a place that cared for the soul rather than the body. Hospitals offered Mass and confession to the patients. In many cases the hospital was a religious institution which did not spend too much time treating the patient.
As the plague spread, hospitals were overrun and they were forced to give up their functions as hospices so they could focus more on the disease. The failure to halt and cure the disease were discussed in these hospitals, and new ideas were presented. Medicine became more observational and developed into a practical science.