29 Photographs of Italy's Fascist Regime
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime

29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime

Jacob Miller - July 31, 2017

The original fascist ideology is associated with the Fascist Revolutionary Party (PFR), founded in 1915 and was succeeded by the National Fascist Party (PNF) in 1921, under Benito Mussolini ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943.

Fascism was born in the wake of World War I as a result of the inflated economy, large debts, and widespread unemployment. Discontented factory workers and the peasants’ opposition to the socialist agricultural collectivism. Fascism began to spread through the countryside toward the end of 1920. Socialist and Catholic organizers of farm hands were soon attacked by Fascist para-military Blackshirt squads. Nightly expeditions to burn Socialist and Catholic labor headquarters had begun.

Italian fascism was rooted in nationalism, revolutionary socialist syndicalism, and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which was deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength. Italian Fascists claimed that Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy, and had historical claims to control the Mediterranean Sea.

The Fascist movement opposed liberalism in the sense of “the debacle of individualism.” The Fascists also opposed Marxist socialism because of the typical Marxist opposition to nationalism.

Italy’s Fascist state was, necessarily, totalitarian. Mussolini described totalitarianism as seeking to forge an authoritarian national state that would be capable of creating a powerful modern Italy. “Fascism is for the only liberty which can be a serious thing, the liberty of the state and of the individual in the state. Therefore for the fascist, everything is in the state, and no human or spiritual thing exists, or has any sort of value, outside the state. In this sense fascism is totalitarian, and the fascist state which is the synthesis and unity of every value, interprets, develops and strengthens the entire life of the people.” Thus, individual liberty vanished.

29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A group of girls in the Littorio fascist youth group. The word Duce behind them is the title of dictator Benito Mussolini. location unspecified. Circa 1937-1939.
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A group of young Italians in the Opera Nazionale Balilla fascist group. Location unspecified. Circa 1920-1929. all-that-is-interesting
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A gymnastics show performed by the Italian Youth of the Lictor, a youth movement of the Italian Fascist Party. Milan, Italy. Circa 1937-1939. all-that-is-interesting
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A Nazi rally goes into full swing, held to welcome Italy’s visiting German allies. Rome, Italy. 1937. New York Public Library
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A public gymnastics display. Location and date unspecified. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A public gymnastics display. Location unspecified. Circa 1923-1924. wikimedia commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini walk by a row of saluting Italian soldiers during a visit from Germany’s new chancellor. Venice, Italy. June 1934. all-that-is-interesting
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
An Italian soldier. Location unspecified. 1943. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Benito Mussolini delivers a speech. Milan, Italy. May 1930. all-that-is-interesting
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Benito Mussolini waves at a massive crowd of supporters. Rome, Italy. Circa 1920-1930. Wikimedia
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Children of the fascist youth consecrate a new flag, while dictator Mussolini looks on. Rome, Italy. October 1931. Bundesarchiv
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Fashionable fascists dress up in anticipation of Mussolini’s visit to their city. Aosta, Italy. May 1939. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Inside a massive Fascist Party rally. Rome, Italy. 1937. New York Public Library

29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Soldiers in Italy’s Black Brigades, the ruling party’s paramilitary army. Location and date unspecified. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
The dead body of a young woman hangs from a pole. She has been killed for resisting the National Fascist Party. Rome, Italy. 1944. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Students salute the Italian flag. Milan, Italy. 1929. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Supporters of the Fascist Party march in a parade. Milan, Italy. November 1928. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
The inauguration of Littoria, Italy, a city created by Mussolini’s fascist party. December 1932. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
The Italian and Nazi flags fly side-by-side. Rome, Italy. 1937. New York Public Library
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Young boys in the fascist youth group, the Opera Nazionale Balilla. Italy. Date unspecified. all-that-is-interesting
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A Nazi general salutes a line of Italian troops before sending them off to fight the Allies. Rome, Italy. March 1944. Bundesarchiv
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Mussolini taps the cheek of a young boy in the Black Brigades. Brescia, Italy. 1945. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A propaganda photo shows massive tractors rolling into action and an Italian flag waving overhead. Location unspecified. 1937. New York Public Library
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
A soldier checks a civilian’s papers. Milan, Italy. 1944. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
School children pose for a photo. Behind them are graffiti tags saluting Mussolini as the Duce (leader) of Italy. Marano, Italy. 1930. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
Members of the Black Brigades salute Benito Mussolini. Rome, Italy. 1935. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
The Black Brigades stand at attention. Rome, Italy. March 1936. Wikimedia Commons
29 Photographs of Italy’s Fascist Regime
An Italian resistance member, working with the British troops to fight the Germans in Italy. Florence, Italy. August 1944. Wikimedia Commons

 

Sources For Further Reading:

History of Western Civilization II – The Rise Of Fascism

Time Magazine – What Is Fascism? What to Know About Its Brutal Origins

Swansea University – What Was The Impact Of Fascist Rule Upon Italy From 1922 To 1945?

Historians – The Rise and Fall of Fascism

The Guardian – The Fascist Movement That Has Brought Mussolini Back To The Mainstream

History Collection – Life in Italy Under Benito Mussolini

Slate – How Italian Fascists Succeeded In Taking Over Italy

Forbes – The Economic Leadership Secrets of Benito Mussolini

The Washington Post – These Are The Three Reasons Fascism Spread In 1930s America

European Economic And Social Committee – Fascism On The Rise: Where Does It Come From, And How To Stop It, With A Common European Response

Royal Examiner – Marxists vs. Fascists

Library of Economics and Liberty – Similarity Between Socialism and Fascism

Encyclopedia Britannica – Common Characteristics Of Fascist Movements

Today – Fascism, Socialism, Liberal

AEON – The Lure Of Fascism

The Conversation – After 100 Years, Mussolini’s Fascist Party Is A Reminder Of The Fragility Of Freedom

History Collection – Mussolini Declares a New Fascist Republic (1943)

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