11. The scowl was real in one of the most famous photographs of Winston Churchill
On December 30, 1941, Winston Churchill arrived by train in Ottawa, Canada, to address the Canadian Parliament. During that speech, he referred to a comment made by French Marshal Philippe Petain in 1940, to the effect that England would “have her neck wrung like a chicken” if it continued to fight following the French surrender. Petain at the time headed the collaborationist French government at Vichy. “Some chicken. Some neck”, Churchill scoffed before the Parliament to laughter, cheers, and applause. He spoke for nearly forty minutes, his delivery lengthened by numerous interruptions for applause. Following the speech, he enjoyed a whiskey and soda with Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King, though King chose tea over alcohol. Churchill then learned of a plan for a portrait photograph, something he had not planned. He agreed only grudgingly.
When the photographer posed Churchill, he wanted the Prime Minister to place one hand, his right, on a chair back and the left on his hip, angled to the camera with his head turned toward the lens. Churchill had just lighted another of his numerous daily cigars. The photographer asked him to remove it. Churchill refused. Pretending to move forward to adjust the lighting the photographer plucked the cigar from his mouth and returned to his camera. Upon facing his subject he saw an outraged Churchill glowering at him, a deep scowl on his face. He quickly snapped the picture. The photographer later noted, “By the time I got back to the camera he looked so belligerent he could have devoured me”. Churchill never commented on the resulting photograph, nor did he express an opinion of the photographer, at least not in writing.
12. The Allies signed the agreement they had worked out on New Year’s Day, 1942
Back in Washington, at the White House, Churchill, Roosevelt, and representatives from the Soviet Union and China signed a document entitled A Declaration by the United Nations. Twenty-two other nations signed the same document later. It established the necessity of total victory in the ongoing war. The allies claimed total victory, that is, unconditional surrender was “…essential to defend life, liberty, independence, and religious freedom.” Over the next couple of days war talks between the British and Americans continued. Churchill later claimed in his memoirs that several of the Americans told him he looked fatigued. Edward Stettinius, a Special Assistant to the President offered Churchill the use of his small bungalow near Palm Beach, Florida, for a few days’ rest. Whether FDR urged him to do so remains uncertain.
By then Churchill had accomplished his two main goals on the American trip. The Allies had agreed on focusing on the destruction of Germany first. He had won over the US Congress and a considerable portion of the American press. General George Marshall offered the Prime Minister the use of his personal Army aircraft for the trip. On January 5, 1942, Churchill flew from Washington to West Palm Beach, from whence he was conveyed to Pompano Beach and the seaside bungalow. Dr. Wilson accompanied his charge, as did a few officers of the British delegation. Churchill later described the respite as “…five days…lying about in the shade or the sun, bathing in the pleasant waves…” He also described spotting a large shark. When informed that it was merely a ground shark Churchill noted, “…it is as bad to be eaten by a ground shark as by any other”.
Churchill’s workload did not lessen while he rested at Pompano. Papers requiring his attention were flown to him from Washington and returned in the same manner when he was through with them. He rewrote several papers on the future conduct of the war effort, based on decisions made in Washington and on changing events. He wrote a paper on the necessity of developing new and better designs for landing craft, to deliver troops and equipment to the future beachheads. On January 10 the party departed Florida, returning to Washington by train. They arrived at Washington’s Union Station that day. Churchill and Roosevelt continued a series of meetings over the next four days, along with the British/American Combined Chiefs of Staff. Churchill’s return travel plans were also formalized over the next few days.
HMS Duke of York had been assigned to carry the Prime Minister back to Britain. However, after three weeks in America, the rest of the world knew where the Prime Minister was. Duke of York would be a target for every U-boat in the German fleet, and its departure from Norfolk, or any other American port, duly noted by the German submarines operating off the American coastline. Bermuda offered air cover, and it was determined Duke of York would rendezvous with Churchill’s party there. A small contingent would accompany Churchill in a Boeing Flying Boat, which would convey the Prime Minister to Bermuda. At first, Dr. Wilson was not assigned to Churchill’s party. Appalled at the plan, the doctor interrupted a meeting of the Combined Chiefs to argue his case for accompanying the Prime Minister. He won his argument, and Churchill prepared to depart the United States.
The entire White House staff gathered to bid Winston Churchill farewell on January 14. So did the President and a no doubt heavily relieved Eleanor Roosevelt. After three weeks of Churchillian behavior, she did not share her husband’s good opinion of the British Prime Minister. He hadn’t been gone a week when FDR had a cloakroom in the White House basement converted into a Map Room and communications center, along the lines of Churchill’s. The White House Map Room was a restricted area. Not even the Secret Service were allowed in. It was staffed by officers of the US Army and Navy, and the President visited it whenever he felt the whim to do so. He did so frequently. His long career as a stamp collector had made him a lover of maps, and he enjoyed the privacy of the room.
For the rest of the war, all communications between the White House and Churchill, Stalin, and Chiang Kai-Shek were filed in Roosevelt’s Map Room. It was staffed 24 hours per day. Situated near the elevator used by Roosevelt to move between the residence and his office, it was convenient for the President. It became his habit to visit the Map Room twice a day, in the morning on his way to work and in the evening before retiring. It was a habit he learned from Churchill and adopted wholeheartedly. During major military operations, he could visit the Map Room several times as the day unfolded, following the progress on maps provided to the President by the National Geographic Society. Meanwhile, Eleanor regained the use of the Monroe Room, and the rooms occupied by Churchill were aired out and thoroughly cleaned of the evidence of his ever-present cigars.
Churchill traveled by train to Norfolk, where he boarded the Flying Boat, the Royal Mail Aircraft (RMA) Berwick. A Boeing 314 Flying Boat, offered commodious spaces to a limited number of passengers. It also served good food. During his journey, Churchill and his party consumed shrimp, ham, chicken, peas, beets, and other cold buffet items, as well as tea and coffee. The record is silent on whether Churchill had access to brandy or another alcoholic libation during the flight. Accompanying Churchill in the aircraft were Dr. Wilson, Sir Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, the Minister for Aircraft Production, Lord Beaverbrook, and Air Chief Marshall Charles Portal. Churchill and party departed from Norfolk, arriving in Bermuda late in the day. During the flight, the Prime Minister spent a considerable amount of time with the pilot, Captain John Kelly-Rogers.
Kelly-Rogers was a well-known and highly skilled pilot, and Churchill found him knowledgeable and affable. During the flight to Bermuda, where he was to board Duke of York, Churchill learned that with a full load of fuel, Berwick could easily reach Britain from the island. At that time, no national leader had flown across the Atlantic, a distinction which tickled Churchill’s fancy. Arguing that flying to England from Bermuda would save several days of the Prime Minister’s valuable time, and that Duke of York would be freed for duties more in line with the reason it had been built, he suggested flying home to his companions. They agreed, provided the aircraft approached the British coast outside the range of the German Luftwaffe. Upon arrival in Bermuda, the aircraft was refueled, the flight plan filed, and Churchill set off on the last leg of his trip to and from the White House.
16. Both the Luftwaffe and the Royal Air Force scrambled to intercept Churchill’s airplane
During the flight from Bermuda, Kelly-Rogers’s navigation left something to be desired. Or perhaps it was Churchill’s piloting. For approximately twenty minutes of the return flight, Churchill took the controls of the airplane. At least, that is what he later claimed. A photograph exists which shows Churchill seated in the left-hand pilot’s seat, cigar clenched in his mouth, the wheel clenched in his hands. Churchill himself later declared the decision to return home by air, rather than aboard Duke of York, to have been rash. Considering the others of his party, he wrote, “I thought perhaps I had done a rash thing in that there were too many eggs in one basket”. As the plane drew closer to England, it appeared on German radar at the port of Brest, where an important submarine base and naval installation stood.
German Luftwaffe fighters were scrambled to intercept the airplane, though the Germans had no idea it was carrying Winston Churchill and several highly-ranked British officials. Regardless, the fighters failed to find the airplane before running short of fuel and returning to base. The aircraft flew on, maintaining radio silence. Churchill later wrote that in addition to the Germans, six Royal Air Force Hurricane fighters also scrambled to intercept the flying boat, and they too failed to spot the large aircraft. Given the state of the British radar and command and control system, which had contributed so much to the success of the RAF in the Battle of Britain, this seems unlikely. Shortly before ten o’clock in the morning of January 17, 1942, and after an eighteen-hour flight, Berwick landed in Plymouth. Winston Churchill’s American adventure had come to an end. He would have more as the war went on.
17. Churchill was re-examined by physicians after his return to London
When Churchill returned to London Dr. John Parkinson examined the 67-year old Prime Minister, giving him a full battery of the then available tests, in the presence of Dr. Wilson. His findings did not support the diagnosis than Churchill had a cardiopulmonary event in the White House. Nor did his findings support a diagnosis of angina. So, what had happened the night of December 26 in the White House? Several possibilities have been proposed in the years since, but Churchill never had another such attack. He came to believe he had strained a muscle overexerting himself in an attempt to open the window. Dr. Wilson remained firmly of the opinion he had suffered a mild heart attack, and he did not record Dr. Parkinson’s findings in the medical diary he kept regarding his patient. After Churchill’s death, the “fact” he had suffered a heart attack in 1941 emerged.
Churchill’s doctors did advise him to slow down. Shortly after his return to London, he began planning several other trips; to India to meet with Chiang Kai-Shek, and to Cairo, to address the situation regarding the British troops in the Middle East. In March he confided to Anthony Eden that he was considering a trip to Teheran, as it was then spelled, in order to meet with Joseph Stalin. He mentioned that he may consider going all the way to Moscow should Stalin hesitate to leave Russia during the critical counterstrikes that Spring against the German Army. Far from slowing down, Churchill increased his workload, entering into the detailed planning for the proposed invasion of North Africa, designated Operation Torch by the Combined Chiefs of Staff. And he maintained his extensive correspondence with FDR in Washington.
18. Churchill returned to the United States in June, 1942
On June 17, 1942, Winston Churchill departed Stranraer, Scotland in another flying boat, operated by BOAC pilots under military orders. He arrived in the United States at Baltimore and departed by train for Franklin Roosevelt’s home on the Hudson at Hyde Park, New York. While there Churchill observed the mothballed fleet in the Hudson River and hit upon the idea of sinking some of the vessels to protect the landing sites of invasion troops. FDR like the idea and turned it over to the Navy for consideration. The Navy was not particularly enamored with the idea, but it eventually led to the development of the Mulberry Harbors used in the D-Day invasion two years later. Roosevelt and Churchill remained at Hyde Park for two days, before moving to Washington for the Second Washington Conference. The hastily arranged meeting planned the invasion of North Africa known as Operation Torch.
Even at that late stage, FDR still supported the idea of an invasion across the Channel into France. He received continuous messages from Joseph Stalin demanding a second front in Europe, and the Russian had made clear he did not consider an attack on French North Africa a second front. At the end of the conference, FDR made a decision which had a tremendous impact on the rest of the war in Europe. Dwight Eisenhower was named to command all American forces in the European Theater of Operations. Later, Ike would be elevated to Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, placing the Free French under de Gaulle and the British Army, Navy, and Air Forces under his command. Churchill concurred with the idea, to the dismay of some of his own generals, including Montgomery.
19. Eleanor Roosevelt’s opinion of Churchill evolved over time
In March 1965, two months after Churchill’s death following a series of strokes, Eleanor Roosevelt published an article in Vanity Fair discussing her relationship with the famed Englishman. It was decidedly mixed. In it, she made several comments of a less than complimentary nature. “I have to confess I was frightened of Mr. Churchill”, she wrote. “I was solicitous for his comfort, but I was always glad when he departed…” She referred to his working hours late at night as “unconscionable”. The article also revealed the fact that Churchill had long expected and planned for a visit to Britain by FDR. Eleanor was on a trip to that country when Churchill showed her the rooms, modified to accommodate Roosevelt’s wheelchair, in Number 10 Downing Street. Further modifications were made at his country residence, Chartwell.
Though Eleanor made several trips to Great Britain during the war, FDR never did. He traveled to Casablanca, Teheran, and Yalta, to meet with Churchill and Stalin, but for British trips he preferred to send his trusted aide Harry Hopkins, or another aide, to represent him. He also made long trips to the Pacific to meet with Admiral Nimitz and General MacArthur. But though Churchill invited him several times, and suggested they meet in Great Britain, FDR never accommodated him. He preferred their meetings to occur in the White House, or on neutral territory, as at Casablanca, in then American-controlled Morocco. The reason was political, FDR reasoned there could only be one head man, and that was he, as far as the Allies were concerned. Churchill and Stalin’s war efforts were dependent on American aid, not the other way around.
20. Churchill’s 1941 trip to Washington altered the course of the war
When Churchill arrived in Washington just before Christmas, 1941, America was a long way from being on a war footing. Coastal cities opposed the idea of a blackout, rationing had not yet begun, and the extent of the disaster at Pearl Harbor remained hidden from the public. Jingoism over the fate of Japan drowned out harsh reality. Churchill’s visit changed much of that. Though he exhorted America and Britain to work for the ultimate victory, he also frankly acknowledged it would present a long, hard, and frequently discouraging war. His soaring oratory and frank assessments endeared him to the American people, even those who just three weeks before had opposed American aid to Britain. After Churchill’s visit, the Anglo-American partnership never wavered through the course of the war. That had been his most important goal.
Churchill and Roosevelt met several more times during the war and maintained a lengthy correspondence in letters, notes, telegrams, and official documentation. As the war went on he visited Roosevelt’s Hyde Park home, the Presidential retreat at Shangri-La, later known as Camp David, and several other sites in the United States. Yet none of these communications and visits carried the importance of his December 1941, journey, across a stormy Atlantic crawling with German U-boats. It was that visit which established the United States and its Allies would concentrate on the complete destruction of the Nazi’s power and ability to make war, to the detriment of the Pacific effort. That war began in earnest in 1942, with American bombers striking targets in Europe, and Allied troops landing in French North Africa in November, the first step on their journey to the Rhine.
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