The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair
The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair

The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair

Natasha sheldon - March 6, 2018

The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair
Gauls. Google Images

Culturally Red

The accounts of classical writers are quick to highlight red hair amongst the tribes they encountered in central and Western Europe. As early as the fifth century BC, Herodotus described the Budini, a Scythian tribe from the central western Eurasian steppes as having “grey eyes and red hair,” as were the Thracians whose lands covered parts of modern Turkey, southeastern Bulgaria, and northeast Greece. These tribes were regarded barbarian by the Greeks, despite their military prowess and sophisticated art. However, this was most likely because they were non-Hellenic than because of their hair color.

Meanwhile, the Romans were also noticing the abundance of red hair amongst the tribes they were encountering as their empire progressed ever westwards. Seneca noted that The color of the Ethiopian is not singular among his countrymen, nor is red hair tied up in a knot a peculiarity among the Germans.”Livy in his History of Rome describes the Gaul’s as of “tall stature” and having“Long red hair.” These physical characteristics married with their behavior in battle which was to “terrify and appall.” (38.17.4).

Tacitus also noticed the prevalence of red hair amongst the Germans. “For my own part, I agree with those who think that the tribes of Germany are free from all taint of intermarriages with foreign nations and that they appear as a distinct, unmixed race, like none but themselves, ” he noted in his Germania. “Hence, too, the same physical peculiarities throughout so vast a population. All have fierce blue eyes, red hair, huge frames”.

 

The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair
Celtic Warrior. Google Images

He also noticed that many of the Celtic tribes of Britain also had red hair- and concluded- correctly- that this pointed to an interrelationship between the Celts, Germans and Gauls who all unbeknown to him originated from the central Asian migrations into Europe. In particular, Tacitus noted the Caledonians had “red hair and large limbs” which he felt pointed to a “Germanic origin.”

All of these red-haired tribes match the genetic makeup of the current inhabitants of the lands they occupied. Scotland, Wales and Ireland respectively- the British Celtic nations- all having the high level of red gene carriers and manifestations. On mainland Europe, Brittany, the border between France and Belgium, Switzerland, and Jutland – the ancestral lands of the Gaulish and Germanic tribes- also carry high levels of the red-haired gene. Southwest Norway is unique amongst the Scandinavian countries for the emergence of red hair which some feel justifies the portrayal of Viking as red-haired. However, genetic analysis suggests that the genes dictating red hair in Norway was brought back there from Ireland and Scotland by Viking raiders.

However, not everyone in these areas would have had red hair. So why was it standing out as such a prominent feature to these southern observers?

The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair
Judas Iscariot. Google Images

A Rare and Suspect Color

Both Greek and Roman culture were astute in noticing red hair was more prevalent in certain climates. The philosopher Aristotle noted that those living in northerly climes, as well as fishermen and divers usually had red hair. He reasoned this was because the moist environment both parties frequented made them chilly individuals but that their outer parts became red when they dried off in the sun! Vitruvius also made a similar but less fanciful observation, attributing red hair to the dampness of the climate because this made individuals living there more ‘moist.”

However, despite these rare attempts to rationalize red hair, ancient accounts emphasis certain traits as prevalent in redheads. As well as describing the Gauls, Germans, and Celts as predominantly red headed- something that wasn’t true for everyone- the ancient writers portrayed them as warlike and uncivilized.

These portrayals were reflections of inbuilt classical preconception of redheads. Aristotle, while acknowledging the bravery of tawny headed individuals because the color of their hair matched that of the pelt of a lion, also believed they were evil characters- because their hair color also matched that of a fox. The Romans also had quite a contradictory attitude to fiery hair. Once again, they regarded redheads, as untrustworthy- yet red hair was also desirable, as many Roman ladies aspired to it, prompting Roman wig makers to import quantities of red hair from northern Europe.

 

The Unexpectedly Violent History of Red Hair
Mary Magdalene.Google Images

The Classical suspicion of redheads probably derived from the fact red hair was so rare in the Mediterranean regions. Although Archaic Greek texts like the Iliad refer to Greek heroes such as Achilles and Menelaus as red-headed, less than 1% of the Mediterranean population carry the red-haired gene-despite the descent of some Italians from a portion of the steppe migrants who crossed the Alps in around 1300BC. Intermarriage with other peoples with more dominant genes meant that the recessive red gene rarely had a chance to express itself and so was incredibly rare.

However, this suspicion of red hair continued and evolved with time. In the Middle Ages and beyond, redheads acquired even more negative connotations. Red hair became an almost demonic badge, associated with witches, vampires, and werewolves. By the Renaissance, the Spanish Inquisition was using red hair as a way of identifying Jews- despite the low prevalence of red hair in Jewish people. This badge stuck. Artists began to portray dubious Jewish characters as redheads, such as the treacherous Judas Iscariot and Mary Magdalene before her repentance. This prejudiced tendency was carried into literature, with both Shakespeare and Dickens portraying their Jewish characters of Shylock and Fagin as red-haired.

Redheads were certainly rare. However, perhaps there is something more than a fear of the ‘other’ at work here. Reactions against redheads could be a reaction against the color red itself, as, in nature, red is often a symbol of danger. In 2011, a study of Rhesus monkeys was carried out. Keepers in red, green and blue shirts delivered food to the monkeys. While the monkeys readily accepted the food from the blue and green shirts, they universally rejected food brought by the red shirts.

Perhaps like the color of our hair, the suspicion of red is in our genes.

 

Where did we find this stuff? Here are our sources:

Neoptolemus, Encyclopedia Brittanica

Requiem for the Redhead, Smithsonian Magazine

The Violent History of Red Hair, K Thor Jenson, OMG facts

The Genetic Causes, Ethic Origins, and History of Red Hair, Maciamo Hay, Eupedia

BritainsDNA Announces the Results of the Red-Head Project, BritainsDNA.com, 2012

Livy, The History of Rome

Seneca, A New German Icon

Tacitus, Agricola

Tacitus, Germania

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