11. Philby came under suspicion following the disappearance of Burgess and Maclean
Kim Philby’s long association with Burgess, both professional and personal, immediately put him under suspicion of being complicit in the disappearance. During the summer of 1951, Philby received orders to return to London. Under interrogation, he denied knowledge of the two missing diplomats’ espionage and disappearance. The evidence produced against Philby proved insufficient to charge him with any crimes. Nonetheless, he resigned his position with MI6 in London in July. Philby was allowed to resign rather than face immediate dismissal. The British actions led to increased mistrust of MI6 by their American counterparts. Philby continued to submit to interrogations by the British following his resignation. For two years he failed to find work as a journalist in London.
In 1954 Philby joined a small London newspaper which focused on diplomatic affairs. After several years of interrogation, he requested the government publicly acknowledge his innocence. In November 1955, then Foreign Secretary Harold MacMillan cleared Philby of any and all acts of espionage. “I have no reason to conclude that Mr. Philby has at any time betrayed the interests of his countryâ¦”, MacMillan informed the House of Commons. Philby followed the announcement with a press conference of his own, in which he denied having ever been a communist. He continued to proclaim his complete innocence and stressed his long service to his country. By 1956 Philby was in Beirut, ostensibly as a journalist, a position he used to renew contacts with MI6. Once again, Philby had gained access to classified information of interest to the Soviets.
12. Anthony Blunt’s spying activities ended with Burgess’s and Maclean’s defections
Anthony Blunt met Guy Burgess when the latter arrived in London in May 1951 and assisted him in preparing for his departure for France. For years the Soviet’s recruiter of spies in Cambridge and elsewhere, Blunt curtailed most of his spying activities following questioning by MI5 in 1952. MI5’s chief interest in Blunt included his relationship with Burgess during the latter’s final days in London. Blunt’s social standing and his relationship with the Royal Family caused the intelligence agency to treat him with the proverbial velvet gloves. He denied any espionage activities and MI5 accepted him at his word. Blunt received a knighthood in 1956 for his long service to the Royal Family.
In 1963 an American Blunt had recruited to spy for the Soviets in the 1930s named Michael Straight confessed to Presidential aide Arthur Schlesinger Jr his former activities with the Cambridge 5. Schlesinger informed the CIA, which in turn informed MI5. Faced with the confession, Blunt admitted his activities as a spy for the Soviet Union. MI5, in return for his full confession, agreed to keep his treason an official state secret for a period of fifteen years. He also received immunity from prosecution. Queen Elizabeth II was informed of his treachery, though then Prime Minister Douglas-Home was not. Blunt continued to move in exalted social circles, his treason officially protected from exposure to the public by the British government, until 1979.
13. Maclean and Burgess lived different lives in the Soviet Union
When Guy Burgess fled to the Soviet Union he believed he would one day return to Britain, where he would be exonerated for his crimes. He maintained the belief in Russia, learning only enough of the language to get by. He spent most of his time drinking and partying, pursuits he had long followed in Washington and London. Maclean followed a different path. He learned to speak Russian fluently, corroborated with the Soviet Foreign Ministry, and eventually received the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. He published several papers in Russian under a pseudonym, and in 1952 was joined by his wife and children. In 1956 the Soviet government announced the presence of both Burgess and Maclean to the world. It denied either had been spies, but they had rather sought refuge in Russia.
During the 1950s Burgess lobbied the UK government to allow him to return to Britain several times, for visits. None of his requests were granted. Maclean demonstrated no desire to return to his homeland, content to live out his days in the Soviet Union. Gradually Burgess’s heavy drinking wore down his health and he died of arteriosclerosis and complications of liver failure in August 1963. By then the two former Cambridge spies in the Soviet Union had been joined by a third. Despite having been exonerated by MacMillan in 1956, Kim Philby fled to the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, after having conducted further espionage for the benefit of the Soviet Union.
14. The United States attempted to assess the damage done by the Cambridge 5
The defection of Maclean and Burgess to the Soviet Union disrupted American plans to expose the spies in the British delegation in Washington. British intelligence’s failure to present evidence against Philby, and their subsequent exoneration of him, disrupted them further. An atmosphere of distrust and suspicion fell over the intelligence agencies of both nations during a critical period of the Cold War. The distrust became palpable, much to the delight of the Soviets. The Americans found it difficult to assess how much damage had occurred. Areas of concern included lost classified data, information about atomic and thermonuclear weapons, troops deployments, and much more. Agents formerly working for the Americans vanished.
Following the defection of Maclean and Burgess, the Americans remained convinced another mole existed in British intelligence, as well as in their own. There were several Soviet agents outside of the Cambridge 5 remaining in both the United States and Great Britain, as well as in Europe. Classified information continued to be compromised as the United States deployed tactical weapons in Europe as part of NATO. Cooperation between the intelligence agencies of the allies waned at a time when it was sorely needed. According to Yuri Modin, who handled the Cambridge 5, the lack of cooperation alone reflected a Soviet victory. In the 1950s, exchange of information between Britain and the United States regarding nuclear weapons was suspended entirely, remaining so for several years.
15. Kim Philby resumed his spying for the Soviets while in Beirut
From his base in Beirut, Kim Philby traveled extensively in the Middle East in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Covered by his work as a journalist, he resumed contacts with MI6 agents and transferred information gained to the Soviets. In 1961 a Major in the KGB defected to the United States from Finland. The former senior officer in the KGB’s First Directorate, Anatoliy Golitsyn, knew of the spies in both the British and American intelligence services, as well as in various legations and embassies around the world. After the Americans questioned him they turned him over to MI6 for further interrogation. Despite MacMillan’s pronouncement of Philby’s innocence, several agents in both American and British intelligence still harbored suspicions about him. Golitsyn confirmed them as correct.
MI6 sent an operative known by Philby to Beirut, assigned with the task of obtaining a complete confession of his espionage activities. The agent, Nicholas Elliott, confronted Philby in Beirut in late 1962, armed with the information provided by Golitsyn. Finally presented with the evidence of his long service to the Soviets, Philby confessed to a career of betraying his country. He refused to sign a written statement, asking for more time. Elliott agreed to meet with him in Beirut in January 1963, where a statement would be prepared and signed by both men. On January 23, Philby was expected to attend a dinner party in the company of his wife at the home of the British First Secretary in Beirut. Though his wife arrived, Philby failed to meet her as planned.
16. Philby escaped to the Soviet Union in a Russian freighter
The night of January 23, 1963, was stormy. Heavy rains soaked the region, and the city streets were awash. Kim Philby, probably with the assistance of a contact, went to the port rather than to his dinner date. Boarding a Soviet freighter, the Dolmatova, in the darkness, he awaited the ship’s departure. By midnight his absence at the embassy dinner had been reported and MI6 agents sought his whereabouts in the city. Dolmatova departed the port in the early morning hours, leaving some of its scheduled cargo behind on the pier. The hasty departure, covered by the heavy rain and darkness, allowed Philby to escape without pursuit. Dolmatova deposited Philby in Odessa, from whence he made his way to Moscow.
Another account later recounted by Philby had him traveling overland, through Syria to Armenia. Most however claim he sailed in Dolmatova, based on its hasty and unscheduled departure. For weeks following his disappearance from Beirut roads and border crossings were watched. Railroad stations and airports were monitored. The search for Philby remained in effect until July 1963. On July 30, the Soviet Union announced that Kim Philby had been granted political asylum. They also bestowed upon him Soviet citizenship. The Soviets in fact placed Philby under de facto house arrest as they examined the possibility he had come to Moscow as an MI6 plant.
17. The British government attempted to suppress the news of the Cambridge 5
With Philby, Burgess, and Maclean all in Soviet hands, the British government faced embarrassment and international criticism. While in Moscow Philby worked on his memoirs, an autobiography he titled My Silent War. As publication neared in 1967, the British strove to prevent its appearance. Threatened were the arrangements made with Anthony Blunt, embarrassing to British intelligence as well as the Royal Family. The extent of the Soviet penetration into British intelligence and the Foreign Service, as well as their American counterparts, was humiliating. Numerous public careers were threatened by what Philby may put on paper. In 1967 Philby granted an interview with The Times, in which many of these concerns were addressed. In the interview, Philby summed up his motives for spying.
Philby described his motives as being “to destroy imperialism”. In answer to speculation in British periodicals that he had served as a double agent, feeding false information to the Soviets he said he had been “working in the Soviet interest”. British officials warned magazine and newspaper editors against publishing interviews given by Philby, citing the Official Secrets Act and hinting at possible prosecution. During interviews and in his memoirs, which were decidedly self-serving, Philby revealed the location of listening devices, dead drops, and other elements of spycraft, to the dismay of MI5 and other British agencies. Across the Atlantic, where so much of his damage had been done, he drew little attention outside of the intelligence community.
18. Yuri Modin told his version of the Cambridge 5 story in 1994
When Yuri Modin accepted the assignment of handling the Cambridge spies he trod upon treacherous ground. His two immediate predecessors in the role had been shot under orders from Stalin. Some in Soviet intelligence believed the spies had been providing disinformation to the Soviets. Modin accepted the role in 1948, according to his account, published in French in 1994. When an English translation appeared, its publisher changed some of the names in the story, inserting others, including that of Baron Rothschild. Changes between the original version and that published by the British did not receive the approval of the author. Modin disputed the British version of the book until his death in Moscow in 2007.
Modin arranged, from the Soviet side, the defections of Burgess and Maclean. He likely arranged the departure of Dolmatova from Beirut as well, though he did not specifically address Philby’s escape. Of the spies, he considered Burgess the leader of the group. “He held the group together”, he wrote, and, “infused it with his energy”. This contradicted much previously written about the five, most of which considered Philby as the leader. Modin revealed that Burgess alone delivered thousands of pieces of classified material. His efforts allowed the Soviets to be aware of virtually all of the activities and plans of the British Foreign Service, including those of its intelligence activities.
19. The Cambridge 5’s spying led to the deaths of an untold number of people
In the late 1940s, following World War II, MI6 and the CIA undertook an operation to overthrow the newly formed communist government in Albania. Expatriates, trained by the Allied security services, infiltrated Albania in order to restore the realm of the former King Zog. Nearly all of the infiltrators were killed or captured by Albanian security forces. After interrogation, they were shot. Some were British agents, and some worked for the CIA. The Albanians had advanced knowledge of the operation, including infiltration points, the numbers of men involved, and other information which allowed them to defeat the effort. The operation continued until 1951 when it became clear that it had failed. Over 300 men were killed including civilians suspected of aiding in the operation, some after torture. It remained a highly classified secret until the 21st century.
Albanian security forces knew what to expect because Soviet intelligence provided the details of the operation. They had received the information from Kim Philby. Philby addressed the issue in his memoirs, during which he shrugged off the deaths of so many. “They knew the risks they were running. I was serving the interests of the Soviet Union and those interests required that these men were defeated. To the extent that I helped defeat them, even if it caused their deaths, I have no regrets.”, he wrote. Those infiltrators who survived the incursions long believed that a traitor had revealed their missions. They cited as evidence the Albanians were always waiting, whether they entered the country overland, or by boat under cover of darkness.
20. The British spies had different motives for their treason
The motives which drove the Cambridge 5 varied considerably. Money did not appear to be a factor. They all came from well-to-do backgrounds as part of the British upper class. Guy Burgess despised America and Americans, and nearly everyone else was not part of that upper class. He supported the Soviets as a better ally for Britain than the Americans, especially after World War II. For Burgess, American-style capitalism would destroy the British class system, an intolerable idea. Philby believed whole-heartedly in the communist system, and opposed British imperialism, though he did not share Burgess’s rabid anti-Americanism. Even after observing first-hand the failures of the Soviet system, Philby supported communism. “The fault lay with the people in charge”, he said.
Philby continued to work for the Soviet Union during his later days in Moscow, helping produce propaganda and disinformation campaigns. Maclean too, contributed to the Soviet government in Moscow. His motivation remains the subject of much debate. According to an assessment made later by American intelligence, Maclean provided the most useful information to his Soviet masters. He continued to analyze intelligence data for the Soviets, often information received from other spies. Cairncross viewed his actions during World War II as simply rendering aid to an ally. After the war, he ceased spying, or so he claimed. Blunt stopped working for the Soviets following the defections of Burgess and Maclean. None of the traitors ever expressed any remorse for their activities, and Philby boasted openly (sometimes fictitiously) over his feats of spying derring-do.
21. The Cambridge 5 are honored in the former Soviet Union
The residence where Burgess and Maclean lived for a time in Russia received a plaque honoring the spies in 2019. Among the tributes presented at the time was a message from the director of the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation. He thanked the pair for “â¦a significant contribution to theâ¦protection of our strategic interests and ensuring the safety of our country”. Philby received several honors from the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation, including the naming of a square in Moscow in his honor. Anthony Blunt’s treason became known to the world when his agreement with the British government expired in 1979. Stripped of his knighthood and ostracized, he later wrote he regretted his actions, not for betraying his country, but because of the adverse impact the revelation had on his own life in Britain.
In Britain, attempts to suppress information about the five and the damage was done by them continued for decades. Gradually files regarding the Cambridge 5 were released to the National Archives in Great Britain, though hundreds more remain classified. Under British law, most if not all of them should have been released years ago. In 2020 released files included information indicating a deliberate cover-up of much of the story, undertaken to prevent embarrassment to the government. Thus, the story remains incomplete, subject to much speculation and conjecture. While British authorities suppressed the story the Soviets, and later the Russians, celebrated it as a significant Cold War victory over the imperialists of the West.
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