4. Haiti Descended Into a Cycle of Massacres and Counter Massacres
In the early stages of Haiti’s slave revolt, the rebels did not demand independence from France, but only their freedom from slavery. Many rebels mistakenly believed that King Louis XVI had issued a decree that freed the slaves, but that the island’s governor and whites had wrongfully suppressed the royal proclamation. Thus the slaves initially articulated their rebellion as a fight on behalf of the French king, against a corrupt colonial governor and white settlers who refused to implement a royal decree.
Within ten days of the uprising’s outbreak, the number of rebellious slaves throughout the colony grew to more than 100,000, and most of northern Haiti fell under their control. They then marched upon Cap Francais, the seat of the colonial government, but were thrown back by the whites, who organized themselves into militias. As the slaves regrouped, the whites went on the counterattack and massacred about 15,000 blacks. Haiti had descended into a cycle of massacres and counter-massacres that lasted until the colony finally gained its independence, and continued on for many years afterward.