40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire

Khalid Elhassan - February 3, 2019

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Mongols breaking through the Great Wall of China. Pintrest

14. Genghis Initially Planned to Massacre Tens of Millions Conquered Chinese

Genghis Khan’s victories left him in charge of conquered territories that included tens of millions of Chinese peasants. He did not know what to do with them, so he decided to kill them all, and let their farmlands revert to grasslands that could serve as pasturage for the Mongols’ herds. The Chinese were spared that genocide after Genghis’ advisors explained the concept of taxation to him, and he came to realize that many live peasants working the fields and paying regular taxes would produce great wealth for him.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Medieval illustration depicting Mongol invasion of Khwarezmian Empire. Wanderers Ink

13. Genghis Wiped Out an Empire to Avenge an Insult

Genghis’ campaigning in China was interrupted by a diplomatic incident that led to far reaching consequences. It was triggered when a governor in the powerful Khwarezmian Empire to the west executed Mongol envoys sent by Genghis to its emir. The emir then committed one of history’s greatest mistakes, when he scornfully refused to hand over the offending governor. So Genghis launched an invasion of Khwarezim in 1218, that overran and extinguished it by 1221. Its fleeing emir was relentlessly chased across his steadily dwindling domain, until he died, abandoned and exhausted, on a small Caspian island as Genghis’ men closed in.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Mongol severed heads pyramid. Da Rajin Cajun

12. Genghis’ Reputation For Savagery Was Earned in the Khwarezmian Campaign

Genghis’ conduct during the Khwarezmian campaign cemented his reputation for savagery. Thousands of captives were marched ahead of Mongol armies as human shields. Millions died, as Genghis had entire cities massacred for offering the least resistance. After the capture of an enemy city, the cry “feed the horses!” signaled the Mongols to fall upon and rape, murder, and plunder. When operating deep in enemy territory, Genghis preferred to leave no enemies or potential enemies behind, and making few distinctions between combatants and noncombatants, frequently ordered the killing of all who were encountered.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Mongol capture of Nishapur, in Persia. How Stuff Works

11. Genghis Was a Cold Blooded Killer

Genghis was chillingly methodical in his atrocities. He did not torture or unnecessarily abuse his victims, but had them killed quickly. Specific units were given the task of butchery, soldiers were assigned quotas of victims to kill, and the massacres were carried out swiftly. In short order, Genghis reduced Khwarezm from a prosperous empire to a depopulated wasteland. At the central mosque in the once thriving but now smoldering Khwarezmian city of Bukhara, he told the survivors that he was the Flail of God, and that: “If you had not committed great sins, God would not have inflicted a punishment like me upon you“.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Western Xia imperial tombs. Asia Vtour

10. Genghis Committed His Greatest Atrocities Against the Western Xia

Genghis had reduced the Western Xia in China to vassalage in 1210, and for nearly a decade, they served him, assisting against the Jin and other enemies. However, when war broke out between Genghis and the Khwarezmians, the Western Xia took the opportunity to renounce their vassalage and ally with the other Chinese. Genghis responded to the betrayal by invading the Western Xia again in 1225, this time with the aim of exterminating them. He conducted a genocidal campaign, in which he systematically reduced and destroyed their cities, while massacring both the urban and rural populations.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Giant Genghis Khan statue in Mongolia. YouTube

9. Somewhat Aptly, Genghis Died In the Midst of a Genocidal Campaign

After two years’ of campaigning in Western Xia, during which his men carried out a series of massive massacres, each with victims numbering in the hundreds of thousands, Genghis’ quest to conquer the world ended when he fell off a horse in 1227, and died of his injuries. His death did not save the Western Xia: the Mongols continued the campaign, with redoubled ferocity in honor of their deceased leader. Today, the Western Xia are almost unknown beyond a small circle of academics, precisely because Genghis’ campaign to annihilate them was so successful.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan’s empire and campaigns. Wikimedia

8. The Mongol Conquests Continued After Genghis’ Death

By the time he died, Genghis had conquered an empire stretching from the Sea of Japan in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west, and from the Siberian forests in the north down to Persia and Afghanistan in the south. The Mongol expansion did not stop with his death, however, as Genghis had left behind a formidable army, and capable military commanders whom he trained into getting the most out of the Mongol forces. The military machine forged by Genghis kept on conquering for decades after its creator’s demise.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Greatest extent of the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan’s successors. Imgur

7. Zenith of Mongol Empire

Genghis was succeeded by his son, Ogedei, who was not his father’s military equal, but who was wise enough to know that he was not. From his capital in Mongolia, Ogedei directed simultaneous campaigns on multiple fronts that were separated by thousands of miles. He entrusted their execution to his father’s capable generals, whom he authorized to act independently within their theaters, subject to Ogedei’s orders, which were relayed via a swift horse relay communications network. By the time Ogedei died in 1241, the empire had reached its furthest southward extent, into southeast Asia, and westward all the way to the outskirts of Vienna.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Kublai Khan statue in Ulan Bator. Popular Science

6. The Mongol Empire Reached Its Zenith Under Genghis’ Grandson, Kublai Khan

Genghis Khan’s grandson Kublai Khan (1215 – 1294) completed the conquest of China, and founded the Yuan Dynasty, which unified China under a single ruler for the first time in centuries. By then, the Mongol conquests had been divided amongst Genghis’ descendants into separate khanates, all of which owed allegiance to Kublai Khan. His writ thus extended across history’s greatest contiguous land empire, stretching from the Pacific in the east to the Carpathian Mountains in the west.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Toghon Temur, last Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. Wikimedia

5. The Fragmentation and Collapse of Genghis’ Empire

Although the various Mongol khanates owed nominal allegiance to Kublai Khan, they increasingly acted as independent entities, and took to warring amongst themselves. Kublai Khan, who was more focused on ruling his own realm in China – which was wealthier than all the other Mongol khanates put together – did little to interfere. He had come to appreciate the benefits of civilization, and decided to leave his roughneck relatives to deal with each other in their roughneck ways, so long as they did so far away.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Turko-Mongol warrior. Pintrest

4. Final Steppe Spasms

By historical standards, Genghis Khan’s empire did not last long. Within two generations of his death, his descendants had fallen amongst themselves, and fragmented the great conqueror’s realm into rival khanates. By 1368, the greatest of those khanates, the Yuan Dynasty of China, had fallen, and Genghis’ empire had largely vanished. However, the world was due to experience a final great violent spasm from the Steppe, when Tamerlane (1336 – 1405), claiming descent from Genghis, sought to revive his empire. His rampage was, if anything, even bloodier than the Great Khan’s.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Tamerlane, based on a forensic facial reconstruction of his exhumed skull. Facts and Legend

3. Tamerlane’s Rise

Tamerlane, a Muslim Turko-Mongol, was born in today’s Uzbekistan. His rise began in 1360, when he led Turkic tribesmen on behalf of the region’s ruling Khan. However, the Khan was murdered, triggering a power struggle. It ended with Tamerlane as the power behind a throne occupied by a figurehead puppet, through whom Tamerlane ruled. While his claimed descent from Genghis is dubious, Tamerlane justified his conquests as a restoration of the Mongol Empire and re-imposition of legitimate Mongol rule over lands seized by usurpers.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
‘Tamerlane the Terrible’, by C. L. Doughty. Pixels

2. Tamerlane’s Rampage

Tamerlane then spent 35 years earning a reputation for savagery, while bringing fire and sword to the lands between the Indus and the Volga, the Himalayas and the Mediterranean. Among the cities he left depopulated and in ruins were Damascus and Aleppo in Syria; Baghdad in Iraq; Sarai, capital of the Golden Horde, and Ryazan, both in Russia; India’s Delhi, outside whose walls he massacred over 100,000 captives; and Isfahan in Iran, where he massacred 200,000. Tamerlane was also in the habit of piling up pyramids of severed heads, cementing live prisoners into the walls of captured cities, and erecting towers of his victims’ skulls as object lessons and to terrorize and edify.

40 Awe-Inspiring Facts About Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Tamerlane liked building towers with the skulls of his victims. Pintrest

1. Tamerlane’s Body Count

Tamerlane is estimated to have killed about 17 million people, amounting to 5 percent of the world’s population at the time. Extrapolated to current global population of 7.7 billion, Tamerlane’s rampage would be the equivalent of killing 385 million people today. His decades-long warpath finally came to an end in 1405 as he was preparing to invade China, but he took ill while encamped, and died before launching the campaign. He would prove to be history’s last major Steppe conqueror.

_________________

Where Did We Find This Stuff? Some Sources and Further Reading

Burgan, Michael – Empire of the Mongols (2005)

Encyclopedia Britannica – Genghis Khan

Hildinger, Erik – Warriors of the Steppe: Military History of Central Asia, 500 BC to 1700 AD (1997)

Morgan, David – The Mongols (2007)

Saunders, John Joseph – The History of the Mongol Conquests (2001)

Weatherford, Jack – Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World (2004)

Wikipedia – Mongol Military Tactics and Organization

Advertisement